Friday, May 31, 2019
The Public ChoiceFor some p arents, deciding on a school for their children lav be a difficult decision. Many parents do not spend much time thinking almost it they place their children into the local school designated by where they live. Others attended a private school themselves and found that it was a beneficial experience and therefore want the same for their kids. But which is better private schools or public schools? While there are many advantages and disadvantages in each (nothing is going to be absolutely perfect), we are going to focus on the benefits of an schooling in the public school system, or in other words, schools funded by the government that are for anyone to attend. An accurate definition found in the Encyclopedia of American Education (1996) states Any elementary or secondary school under control of elected or appointed civil authority, supported entirely by public tax monies, and, with few exceptions, open to all students in a designated district, free of any tuition charges. (780) These include elementary, secondary schools and vocational schools. Public schools are a good choice in education because they provide a wide variety of subjects to study, are diverse in their student body, avail adapted to everyone, to date can sometimes be misunderstood.Imagine sitting in a screen, completely bored out of your mind. This is not difficult considering everyone has taken a syllabus like this somewhere along the road of their education. Not every class can be exciting and we should know that. Now imagine every class is of this level, with no break, or elective, classes incorporated into your day. Although this may not apply to all private schools, there are many that focus on item topics. So even though the... ...des. Students who do well in a public school setting tend to feel better about themselves. They pursue because they want to, not because someone else forced them to.Whether someone prefers a public school or a private school, it all depends on the person. Unfortunately, not everyone is able to appreciate all that public schools have to offer because they get their vision blurred by all the benefits of private schools. The only thing holding them cover may be cost. If these people would just take some time to find that there are just as many wonderful things about the schools our governments provide, they may feel more confident in their choice. Those never exposed to anything but private education miss out on the diversity among students, excess vocational and extracurricular classes, and may even continue to not understand all that public schools have to offer.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Where did man come from? Where did time begin? Who, or what, created all things?  These are questions that mankind has seek to answer from the beginning of existence as it is known today.  Many stories and fables have been told and passed down from generation to generation, yet two have survived the test of time and criticism.  The biblical theme in Genesis,  probably written by Moses around 1500 B.C., and the story of intro and climax in Ovids Metamorphosis, written nearwhere between 8 and 17 A.D., have weathered the criticism and become the most famous.  The Genesis account, however, may be the most prominent of the two accounts.  Within these accounts, are many similarities, as well as differences, which make these two writings well respected, while holding their own in the literary world.         Though both accounts of the creation and flood are well respected on their own, when compared side to side, they are drastically different.  Ovids purpose for writing the creation story is geared more towards explaining creation as it happens, in his opinion, whereas the Bible stresses the fact that the God of the Hebrews is responsible for the worlds existence today.  Overall, Ovid is very detailed in explaining the formless mass, creation of the earth, waters and land metaphorically.  The Biblical account seems to be more plain, simple, and organized not spending time on intricate detail.  There seems to be no specific time frame for creation in Ovids writing, whereas, the Bible states that it takes God six ... ...mal species.         As one can see, when comparing each of the accounts of the flood and creation in Ovids Metamorphoses and Genesis, there are some very similar actions or events that take place in each of these accounts, while separating themselves a great deal by putting emphasis on very different messages.&n bsp It is because of these variations in writing and technique that each of these poems have acquired and maintained the respect they truly deserve through many years of paygrade and criticism.   Works Cited   New American Standard Bible.  Nashville, TN Broadman 1977.   Ovid.  Metamorphoses.  The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces.  Ed. Maynard Mack.  5th edition.  New York Norton 1987.  549-560.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Biased Fight Against Crime in Millers Essay, The Rush to avengeIn the essay The Rush to Punish, Jerome Miller discusses how the nations fight against crime has been aimed at the poor and minorities. He argues that far too many tribe ar in prison or have criminal records in this country. Millers main claim is one of policy, which expresses that the nations current criminal justice system needs to vary. He writes, Im very pessimistic about where things are heading (566). This essay discusses issues of racism, stereotypes, individual city systems, and family importance in order to appeal to its intended audience of taxpayers, integritymakers, law enforcement officials, and criminals. General audience members, a fraction of society, may be oblivious to their impact on the system. The warrant suggested by Miller is that society must change its biases and routines in order for the criminal justice system to change.This article is written in question-answer format and has been taken fr om an interview. This makes the authors opinion very clear and works well to show argument. Miller appears to be sarcastic is some of his answers. This may confuse the reader, therefore distorting his purpose a little.The first support claim the author makes is that the volume of people in prison are minorities. He uses statistics to prove that the percentages of blacks and Hispanics obtaining criminal records are dramatically increasing. A large portion of minority males has a raging label. Miller states, Now when we talk about building more prisons, when we talk about longer sentences, when we talk about cracking down on trigger-happy offenders, everyone have intercourses that were talking about men of color (566). This clearly shows that something must be changed about the number of minorities involved with crime and backs up the main claim nicely.The succor support claim used by the author is that society has to change how it handles offenders. Average offenders are labele d as serious, violent, and savagelike, but people do not take the time to find out the details of the criminals pasts and the reasoning behind their acts. Miller writes, Those are the kinds of things we not only do not want to know but from which we run in fear - because if we were to hear them, wed all feel a little bit guilty. Its much easier to start talking about people in genetic terms (567). The author uses this support very wisely.
IntroductionThis term paper is situated in an area of specific health related and environmental concern the gentlemans gentleman dimensions of global change. For about a decade now there has been growing scientific interest in the global environmental changes resulting from anthropogenic activity. However most of this research has focused on the scientific bases of environmental transformations with little attention to how human social responses are linked to global change. As a result, scientists and researchers alike are beginning to ask questions about the symbiotic relationship betwixt human well being and physical change.AbstractThis research compilation plans to use one environmental health component of the global change phenomena - ozone depletion and skin cancer - to advance and deepen your understanding of the relationships between human wellness and environmental change. This project should deepen understanding by developing a framework for conceptualizing environmental health policy issues. In this way the relationships between scientists, policy makers and the public will be explored theoretically as the interactions of science, the state, and society as a whole.The Relationship of Skin crabmeat Prevalence and the Increase in Ultraviolet-B Exposure due to Ozone DepletionUltraviolet-B radiation damages the human skin Acute exposure causes sunburn and chronic exposure results in loss of elasticity and change magnitude aging. Increased absorption of UV-B triggers a thickening of the superficial skin layers and an increase in skin pigmentation (both of which act to protect the skin against future sunburns). This protective apparatus however, also makes the skin more vulnerable to skin cancer. Strong evidence exists of a dose... ...tion/2.htmlMahaney, Francis X., Nocturnal Animals Help Shed Light on Human Melanoma, __Journal of the subject field Cancer Institute__, 87 (21) (1 November 1995). Available on the World Wide Web at http//wwwicic.nci.ni h.gov/jnci/iss8721/87-1584.html.Roses, Daniel F., Stephen L. Gumport, Matthew N. Harris, and Alfred W. Kopf, __The Diagnosis and Management of Common Skin Cancers__ (Atlanta, Georgia American Cancer Society, 1989), 89- 50M-No. 3373-PE.Schein, O.D. et al., Ocular and Dermatologic Health Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from the Ozone Hole in Southern Chile, __American Journal of Public Health__, 85 (4) 546-550 (April 1995).Stat Bite Trends in Melanoma Incidence, __Journal of the National Cancer Institute__, 87 (20) (1 November 1995). Available on the World Wide Web at http//wwwicic.nci.ni h.gov/jnci/iss8720/statbi20.jpg.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The Philosophy of EducationPersonally, being an educator gives me a come up to have a great impact on the world. I have always enjoyed seeing the look on someones face when they string a new connection or learn something. I have many strong beliefs in the education process and many times bump that the needs of the savant are overlooked. As a teacher, the students would be priority and that is the backbone of my teaching philosophy. I know that I am not real experienced and have much to learn. This I will strive to do throughout my education and even when I enter the teacher workforce. The reason I chose upper level Biology and Natural Science as a concentration is I have a passion for nature and science. I conceptualise that many times, children are not exposed to these things when they grow up for one reason or another. As a teacher, I plan on contribute a since of appreciation of nature and the environment into the children as much as possible. I understand that the re are limitations onto which this can be done including student background, lack of resources, and limited time constraints but I would take it on myself to do what I can learning science as exciting as possible. My classroom would be run with the attitude of the students in mind. First of all, the main emphasis of class would be learning science, not good behavior. I figure I would take a non-authoritarian view of discipline. By high school, the students know how to behave and constantly apexing out the right way to behave is only breathing out to make them do the opposite for attention. The only time a student would be punished is if their actions are taking away from the learning process. At this point in my education, I would probably say I would let the principle deal with the discipline considering only severe cases would need punishment. This, as with many of my views, may change with increased education and experience.As for my classroom, it would probably be ver y busy in regards to appearance and activity. I think surrounding the students with pictures and things of that sort relate to class is very conducive to a positive educational environment. I would somewhere have a student prepared locations where students are responsible for researching and displaying a topic probably after presenting it to the class.
The Philosophy of EducationPersonally, being an educator gives me a chance to have a great impact on the world. I have always enjoyed seeing the look on someones face when they make a new connection or bring out something. I have many strong beliefs in the education process and many terms feel that the needs of the student are overlooked. As a teacher, the students would be priority and that is the backbone of my teaching philosophy. I know that I am not very experienced and have much to learn. This I give strive to do throughout my education and even when I enter the teacher workforce. The reason I chose upper level Biology and Natural perception as a concentration is I have a passion for nature and science. I think that many times, children are not exposed to these things when they give rise up for one reason or another. As a teacher, I plan on instilling a since of appreciation of nature and the environment into the children as much as possible. I understand that the re are limitations onto which this can be done including student background, lack of resources, and limited time constraints but I would take it on myself to do what I can learning science as exciting as possible. My classroom would be run with the attitude of the students in mind. First of all, the main emphasis of class would be learning science, not good behavior. I guess I would take a non-authoritarian view of discipline. By high school, the students know how to behave and constantly pointing out the right way to behave is only going to make them do the opposite for attention. The only time a student would be punished is if their actions are taking away from the learning process. At this point in my education, I would probably say I would let the principle deal with the discipline considering only severe cases would need punishment. This, as with many of my views, may change with increased education and experience.As for my classroom, it would probably be very busy in r egards to appearance and activity. I think surrounding the students with pictures and things of that sort related to class is very conducive to a unconditional educational environment. I would somewhere have a student prepared locations where students are responsible for researching and displaying a topic probably after presenting it to the class.
Monday, May 27, 2019
23 May 2011 One Bite At a Time Most the Statesns ar aw ar of global warming, cancer, heart disease and the fact that the earths supply of good water is diminishing. In an effort to conserve our planet tribe drive hybrid cars, recycle, and use low energy light bulbs and appliances, which is gr run through. However, closely Americans are unaware and uninformed about how centre of attention effects global warming, our health, and how oftentimes of our planets water and resources meat production consumes.Meat contributes to global warming, increases essayiness for cancer, causes heart disease and uses a trem land upous amount of resources to produce, at that placefore people motivating to be informed about what they are reach through food labeling and Surgeon General warnings, as well as cutting back to set aside portion sizes. Farming used to do good things for our planet, where as this instant its causing harm due to mass production and factory farms. Tradition whollyy, farm animal(prenominal)s compete a useful role . . . they ate grass, crop wastes, and kitchen scraps that people could not eat and turned them into good that people could eat.Their scatter provided the soil with necessitate nutrients . . . the animals pulled plows and provided services that enhanced human life(Robbins 233). Things sustain changed drastically since the days of simple solid ground. Today, With the expansion and mechanization of animal farming . . . there are now 20 billion livestock on Earth- more than triple the number of human beings(Robbins 234). The problem with having so many livestock on earth is that the spread out that used to provide soil with nutrients now releases nitrous oxide, which contributes to global warming. According to the U.N solid food and Agriculture Organization Worldwide livestock farming generates 18% of the planets greenhouse gas emissions . . . all the pieces cars, trains, planes and boats account for a combined 13%. However its mo re than just the manure contributing to global warming. FAO estimates that 70% of former forest covers were cut down to make room for grazing. This is a problem because Lost forest cover heats the planet, because trees run CO2 while theyre alive . . . when theyre cut down or burned, the greenhouse gases are released back into the atmosphere(Walsh).Cutting back on meat, or eliminating it all together would be a great way to help preserve our planet and lots cheaper than a hybrid car. If meat production continues to grow, not except will it keep contributing to global warming, it will continue using the earths precious resources. The amount of food and water inevitable for farming is obscene. Water is something that we take for granted. There is no replacement for water, so when there is a 3 to 1 ratio from livestock to humans, why are we wasting so much of our earths precious water on livestock? Forty-two percent of the fresh water available to us in the United States is used for agriculture (Silverstone 25). Granted its not all devoted to animals, and the amount of water needed to produce meat varies in different parts of the country.In California, according to the Water Education Foundation, to produce one pound of California beef the amount of water required is 2,464 gallons comparatively a pound of tomatoes only requires 23 gallons of water (Robbins 236-237). Think of how much water California would save if everyone cut back on meat. Then there is the new(prenominal) problem, how much food we use to feed the livestock. Sixty million acres of the United States are devoted to increase hay primarily for livestock, while we only use 13 million acres to grow fruits and vegetables(Silverstone 25). If there were less(prenominal) of a demand for livestock, that would enable us to use the land devoted to growing hay for growing vegetables, fruit and other plant based foods while using considerably less water. Not only is meat taking a toll on the environment, i ts taking a toll on the heath of America. Eating meat, especially the portions Americans eat, cause Heart Disease and increase a persons risk for Cancer.The facts that there are triple the amount of livestock on earth means only one thing, that humans eat entirely too much meat. In fact, The average person in the industrialized world eats more than 176lb of meat annually(Walsh). People would press that we need meat to survive, but in fact meat causes more harm than it does good because of saturated fats and cholesterol. Cholesterol is found only in animal foods and is particularly c at a timentrated in organ meats and eggs(Davis and Vesanto 27), therefore, it would be hard to argue that cutting back or eliminating meat would be a rotten thing.Another major problem is that meat contains a ton of saturated fats, which raise a persons blood cholesterol and causes plague to clog arteries, impede arteries lead to high blood pressure and heart encounters (Silverstone). More than anyt hing else, blood cholesterol determines your likelihood of having a heart attack(Marcus 10). There have too been many stu hold ups that link meat expending to cancer. Researchers at the University of California at San Diego have isolated a sugar molecule that shows up in many cancerous human tumors . . Not only does Neu5Gc seem to build tumors, our human bodies produce antibodies against Neu5Gc, which causes inflammation, helping the tumors to grow even more(Silverstone 17). The connection between eating meat and cancer from the research done at UC San Diego is that the sugar molecule Neu5Gc comes from red meat and is not produced in the human clay (Silverstone). In America people have a hard time recognizing that what they eat contributes to disease, they would rather put blame on smoking and drinking when it comes to cancer.However, The American Cancer confederacy estimates that 75 percent of all cancers are the product of our environment and lifestyle . . . 30 to 40 percent o f all cancers are caused by diet(Davis and Melina 32). The consumption of meat has also been liked to Osteoporosis When you eat meat, your blood becomes acidic . . . In order to balance all the acidity, your bones come to the rescue by psychotherapeutic some of their minerals(Silverstone 17). Diets, in America revolve heavily around meat and dairy products no wonder cancer is the second leading cause of death.These are significant problems because Heart Disease and Cancer are the number one and two killers in America. Almost one of every two Americans will die from Heart Disease . . . 40 million diagnosed with heart disease, and 1. 5 million a year having heart attacks(Marcus 8). There is no denying that disease is developing at a rapid pace. Everyone knows someone who had or has cancer or heart disease. They are awful diseases, and a high-fat, animal based diet is the single most significant cause of death from heart disease(Marcus 3).If people cut back or eliminated animal produc ts from their diets, not only would they be eating less of the foods that cause their bodies harm, they would be eating more nutrient rich foods (fruits and vegetables) that help fight off and prevent disease. Doctors like Dean Ornish and John MacDougall have ascertained that plant-based diets have the power to reverse heart disease, diabetes, even cancer(Silverstone 7). One might argue that eating vegan or vegetarian is expensive but would you rather suffer a little bit more at the grocery store now, or pay for an xpensive heart surgery or chemotherapy because of what that inexpensive meat did to your body? There are some things already being done in an effort to get Americans to cut back on meat, but they arent enough. Yes, there are more vegetarian options at grocery stores now you no longer have to go to a specialty market to get vegetarian options. In major chain grocery stores like Ralphs and VONS, they carry vegetarian brands of non-meat items like Boca and Garden burger you can buy tofu, tofurkey, non-dairy cheese, yogurt and milk.The only problem is that its not always belatedly to find, they usually have a separate heath food isle where they keep all the non-animal products. Then there is the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. They have started a global movement to get people to cut back on meat by reinventing a campaign called Meatless Mondays that was based on a campaign used during WW1 to conserve food for soldiers. In 2003, they recreated Meatless Mondays as exoteric heath awareness program to help Americans reduce their risk for preventable disease by cutting back on meat. It was originally endorsed by over 20 schools of public health and is now global.Countries, hospitals, restaurants and Universities around the world are joining the movement for Meatless Mondays it could always get bigger though. If there was backing from our brass like there was during WW1 just think of how much larger this campaign could get. During that tim e, The effect was overwhelming . . . In November 1917, New York City hotels saved some 116 tons of meat over the course of one week(Meatless Mondays). If the U. S food administration made the same effort today, the United States could be one step closer to a healthier population. There of necessity to be a Surgeon Generals warning on meat products.The duties of the Surgeon General are to Protect and advance the health of the country through educating the pubic, advocating for effective disease prevention and health promotion programs and activities, and, providing a highly recognized symbol of national commitment to protecting and improving the publics health(Surgeon General). If the Surgeon General serves as Americas doctor, and is concerned advocating for disease prevention, they should take a serious look at promoting a low fat plant-based diet. According to Dr. William Castelli, director of the Farmington Heart Study . . a low-fat plant-based diet would drop an individuals ri sk of heart attack by 85 percent(Silverstone 16). The government, starting with the Surgeon General, also needs to do their job in educating the general public on what meat does to their bodies. Everyone is acquainted(predicate) with the Surgeon Generals warning on cigarettes, that smoking causes cancer and increases you risk for heart disease if eating meat causes heart disease and increases risk for cancer and other diseases like osteoporosis it is important people know what they are putting in their bodies just like cigarettes.Food labeling needs to be the same for meat as it is for every other food product. Almost everything you buy these days has a nutrition label except for fresh meat and poultry. At the end of 2009 the Department of Agriculture proposed a solution that forced grocery stores and supermarkets to provide nutrition facts. However, the solution doesnt work because the grocery stores and supermarkets dont have to put it directly on the package they can put the nut rition facts on a poster, pamphlet, or anywhere in the store that is available to customers if they put across (Hurley and Liebman).If they were forced to add the nutrition facts directly to the package on fresh meats just like every other food product out there, it would at least inform people on what they are putting into their bodies and reduce the amount of meat purchased, and therefore reducing the amount of meat produced. Restaurants need to decrease portion sizes and offer non-meat items. The U. S department of Agriculture says that a typical serving of steaks, roasts, chops and poultry parts is just 3 ounces(Hurley and Liebman).Most restaurants typically serve a six-ounce chicken breast, and the size of a steak ranges from 6 to 12 ounces. That is a huge problem right there, no wonder obesity is a problem in the United Stares. If restaurants were required to serve the appropriate serving size recommended by our government and health officials, there would be less people eati ng meat, which would once again lead to less meat being produced. Another problem with restaurants, especially chain restaurants are that they dont always serve non-meat items. I have worked for T.G. I Fridays for the past seven years, and they dont even serve a veggie burger. Restaurants should be required to serve a vegetarian option. Most people love dining out and if they had non-meat options it would allow them make healthier decisions and help contribute to the reduction of the amount of meat produced. If Americans want to do their part in conserving our planet while reducing their risk for heart disease, cancer and other nasty diseases they need to consider how what they eat effects themselves and the environment.The government needs to provide guidelines and Surgeon General warnings to help inform and guide our nation to eating less meat and living a healthier lifestyle. If we all do our part one bite at a time we will have a healthier nation, reduce the amount of harm farmi ng is doing to our planet (because their would be less livestock on earth), as well as use less of our earths precious resources.Works Cited A extend Becomes a Movement. Meatless Mondays. n pg. n. d. Web. 11 May 2011. Davis, Brenda and Melina, Vesanto. The New Becoming Vegetarian. Summertown, Tennessee Healthy Living Publications, 2003. Print. Hurley, Jayne and Liebman, Bonnie. The Kindest Cut. Nutrition Action Health Letter. 37. 8 (Oct 2010) pg. 13. Web. 11 May 2011. Marcus, Erik. Vegan The New Ethics of Eating. New York Mcbooks Press, 2001. Print. Office of Surgeon General. About the office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General. n. pg. n. d. Web. 9 May 2011. Robbins, John. The Food Revolution. San Francisco Conari Press, 2001. Print. Silverstone, Alicia. The Kind Diet. New York Rodale Inc, 2009. Print Walsh, Bryan. Meat Making Global Warming Worse. Time. Sept. 2008n. pg. Time. com. Web. 3 May 2011.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Problem IdentificationPresently, David Barger, former COO elected CEO of JetBlue Airways (JetBlue), faces a cardinal issue of slowing down their becometh. The issue at hand is What is the best path for JetBlue slow down their growth in the future skyway sedulousness?External AnalysisMacro Economics AnalysisFor an analysis of the Macro Economics of the JetBlue, a PESTEL analysis is shown down the stairs for the United States. PESTEL AnalysisPolitical N/AEconomic The United Sates was hit hard economically from the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This caused fargon wars amongst competitors in the air travelline exertion and domestic airline yields to sack twenty percent. These yields wouldnt recover from pre attack rates until 2006. In accompaniment, as of October 2006, five major United States airlines were operating under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. force out costs in the United States have seen a dramatic increase since the terror attacks in 2001.SocialThe ai rline industry, like every other industry, has been alter by the introduction of the internet and its users. People have made it the norm to purchase their airline tickets over the internet instead of by ph ace or travel agent. These sites have become user friendly and notwithstanding offer incentives to the buyer. Another social trend is reoccurring task passengers that fly all over the rude for work or meetings bringing in a whole other market. Technological Mostly every industry is driven by technology and the airline industry is no exception. The development of brisk knock offs and newer ways of manufacturing them hold a great deal of value for a company. The current woodworking planes that JetBlue operate with atomic number 18 the A320 and the E190. The A320 was a proven plane that JetBlue had begun using since their introduction in 2000.The E190 was stooping into a promising plane that had great growth potential showing a overmuch degrade cost margin compared to th e A320. The downside of the E190 is that it is not liked by JetBlues employees and guests as much as the A320. Environmental Weather is the biggest threat to any travel industry, airliners in particular. Severe weather may cause flight delays or possibly cancellations making airlines an unreli subject way to travel. Legal The size of an aircraft and the amount of passengers that one can fly is regulated by the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA). These regulations help ensure the relationship between regional airlines and legacy airlines. Pilots unions have even asked for scope clauses in their contracts to ensure that their routes are not encroached on by regional airlines. Airlines similarly operate under the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) which dictates to them when a flight can fly or not in certain weather conditions.To conclude, the airline industry like most industries has been dealing with economic downswing a dour with new social trends and the ever growing of today s technology. Weather will always be an unpredictable travel flaw where such industries have no control of the results.Industry AnalysisIndustry Commercial airline raisers are separated by two divisions, long haul and brusque haul outings. The industry that JetBlue operates in is located in the U.S. and it is divided into three segments, legacy carriers, low cost carriers, and regional airlines. These segments serve each of thedivisions depending on the aloofness of the flight and the amount of passengers that can fit on the plane. This industry is a very matched one and has been proven hard to turn a lucre for most companies. Life Cycle JetBlue, founded in 1999, achieved major airline status in 2004 by exceeding one billion dollars in revenue. JetBlue was also able to achieve the status of the ninth largest passenger carrier in the United States in 2005. JetBlue is currently in the mature stage their life cycle only they have several opportunities for future growth. Mark Pow ers, the senior vice president, was quoted saying that if JetBlue keeps on the same path of acquiring airplanes in bulk they will grow themselves to death.Competitors As aforementioned the commercial airline industry is segmented into three types of carriers. Legacy carriers are the best known airlines in the U.S. and they got their name due to their long histories, some dating back to the 1920s. These carriers also had a specific characterization called the hub and spoke system where these companies would have large hubs at specific airports where lots of their guests would perplex connecting flight (spokes). Some examples of legacy airlines are United Airlines, American Airlines, and Delta Airlines. Low cost carriers, such as southwest Airlines, operated by directly bringing the passengers to metropolis to city, within the limits of 500 miles.This was attractive to passengers due to no layovers or connecting flights and utilized a market that would otherwise travel by car or bu s. In fact, Southwest Airlines was the only airline in America who constantly that made profits each year from 1973 to 2005. Regional airlines services passengers on a plane of less than 76 rumps, and were often used by legacy airlines to charter customers to large hubs to connect with their long haul flight. JetBlue competes directly with all these airlines and is often compared to Southwest Airlines, in terms of being a low cost carrier.Porters 5 Forces ModelDegree of Rivalry The degree of rivalry in the airline industry is very towering, there are multiple companies offering the same service on a daily basis for customers to choose from. There have been legal injury wars in the past usually low cost is the consumers ultimate decisiveness criteria. Brand recognition guides rivalry even greater and incentives that each airline gives to their customers change them to assemble and choose which company theyprefer to travel with. Threat of New Entrants Entry into the airline indu stry is very hard making the threat of new dispatchers very low. There are high barriers along with high capital costs to start operations. An airline is required to have certified pilots that include stipend and they must(prenominal) have substantial rearing in each aircraft in browse to operate one. In order to benefit from economies of scale an airline must have a fleet of airplanes of at least forty to fifty, according to Tom Anderson the senior vice president of Fleet Programs.A new entrant would have a find it hard to compete in an industry with high brand recognition from the legacy airlines that have a loyal interest of passengers with past experiences. Buyer Power Customer power is extremely mixed between high and low in the airline industry. Customers ultimately get to pick and choose which airline best suits their specific shoots making their power high, but the airlines have the power of setting industry prices and times for when flights depart. Customers are lef t wing with choosing between the criteria of a low priced ticket or a specific travel time making their power a little less high or even low. Supplier Power The supply chain for JetBlue has a relatively high amount of power. Suppliers can pick and choose what airline they call for to build for due to the highly specialized trade.JetBlue has found themselves buying airplanes as fast as their supplier, Embraer, can make them. Embraer entered into contract with JetBlue and has enabled them to customize their E190 aircraft in order to try and develop a warring advantage over others. Fuel is a major source of supply in the airliner industry, with the ability to greater margins with lower costs. Fuel prices have seen a dramatic increase over the years from 2001s price of seventy cents a congius to two dollars and ten cents per gallon in 2007.Southwest takes some of this risk out of their operations with the use of fuel hedges. Threat of Substitutions There are no substitutes for long d istance air travel besides competing companies different airplanes, making the threat of substitution low. Planes can be substituted for other plans like the E190 to a regional jet (RJ), but the RJ has a 34% increase in cost per available seat mile. In a way JetBlue is operating as a substitute due to the fact that they offer 65% lower fares than legacy carriers. In terms of a travel substitutes, cars, buses, and trains are all viable substitutes for air travel if a customer decides to choose so.The above industry analysis shows that this is a highly competitive industry with varying power from consumers to suppliers. The overall conclusion is gaining loyal customers succession charge costs low in order to stay competitive in this industry. Most of the drivers of profitability are at a industry/market level rather than a general/firm level.Market AnalysisPrimary By utilizing their different planes, JetBlue has been able to attract two types of primary customers. The A320, the lar ger plane for longer hauls, attracts the family that is going on vacation say to Florida. The E190, the smaller plane for shorter hauls, has attracted the business traveller that might be going to another state for a meeting. Each plane can serve either purpose depending on the distance need travelled but these are the norms that JetBlue has found for their passengers.Secondary A secondary customer is served primarily on shorter hauls between cities. These revelers, as they have been called, travel from city to city for a sports event or a jubilation of sorts and need to be on time without delay due to scheduling. JetBlue has found it hard in the past to guarantee no delays but continue to be one of the best in flight completion. This makes these customers non frequent flyers due to their reputation. Key Success FactorsIn the airline industry the following are the key winner reckon for a company to have a way of attracting customers, managing of their staff, managing of their flee t, customer satisfaction, the ability to meet competitive prices, have a low cost per seat mile, a high passenger load factor, and a high amount of connecting flights for long hauls.The above external analysis shows us that this is a highly competitive industry full of a renewal of players. In order to stay successful companies must keep costs low and have good customer service. The external factors in this industry are mostly out of the companies control and should be taken for what they are due to the impact they have industry wide.The planes that JetBlue operates with are exploitable in a way that gives them a competitive advantage by being able to adhere to two markets instantaneously. The A320 allows them to accommodate long haul travelers while the E190 allows them to accommodate the rest of the market. The Customer Bill of Rights was established after the Valentines Day crisis in 2007 and it describes JetBlues responsibilities to its customers in information sharing, cancell ations, departure delays, overbookings, and on-board ground delays for arrivals and departures. These rights are the first of its kind among the U.S. airlines.JetBlues investment of $800 million for their new terminal in JFK airport with 26 new gates and a wide variety of passenger amenities gives them a huge competitive advantage. This shall attract brand recognition from the state of the art design along with the exclusive access in a very busy international airport. JetBlue with help from their supplier have been able to customize the E190 to include leather upholstery and satellite T.V. screens for each seat dampen-looking the passenger a comfortable and luxurious experience when flying. JetBlue for years has prided themselves as being the best in flight completion. BusinessWeek even had them as forth on the top performing companies in customer service.Value ChainThe activities that create value for JetBlue are as follows To lower fares JetBlue provided customers with incentiv es to purchase their tickets over the internet on the company website instead of by phone. If a customer still wished to book via phone then JetBlue has part time reservation agents who worked from home which in turn lowered their reservation function costs. Having their pilots exclusively fly one type of airplane and not both. To fly both they mandatory dual certification and needed to have training flying which was a form of non-revenue flight time for JetBlue. This cuts down on fuel costs as well as training time giving JetBlues pilots expertise with their aircrafts. Red-Eye Flights. Red-Eye flights are a useful capabilitydue to the fact that not many airlines provide them. These flights are done in the early hours of the morning and connect California to the eastern cities.Leverage As seen above all the leverage ratios are above one meaning debt is higher than the equity produced by the firm. This can be seen as a positive and a invalidating. The positive is that the company ha s the potential to fall more bills with this debt then without it. As seen in the financial statements, liabilities increase every year and so does operating revenues, maybe from a direct correlation. The ostracize aspect is that this gives the company another expense in interest deductive from revenues.Liquidity The single liquidity ratio shows a lot concerning where a business is at in terms of being able to pay off your debt when need be. JetBlues current ratio shows a positive and a negatively charged aspect. The positive aspect shows that in most of the past years JetBlue has had a ratio over one meaning they could pay all their current debt if called upon. The negative aspect is that in 2005 they fell below one and below industry standards. Profitability In the case of profit ratios, JetBlue has a minor gap in between their net income and their operating income. The major difference is that in 2005 and2006 the operating incomes were positive and the net income negative giv ing an indication that there is a factor that is causing a negative impact out of operations. The industry overall has not been profitable as seen in the analysis but JetBlue who has been compared to Southwest, who was profitable in these years, must make some changes to keep up to par.To conclude the above internal analysis JetBlue has many resources that they can use to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. They also have several strong activities that add great value to their operations. Their financial stability might be uncertain at times but the industry as a whole is structured this way in the United States.AlternativesAlternative 1 Stop buying airplanes. impersonate a halt to all plane acquisitions for at least 3 years to stop the growth temporarily.ProsCons Stops from growing to death Will make supplier upset Allows to pay off existing debt No further benefit of economies of scale Allows for employees to adjust Less maintenance costsAlternative 2 Scrap the A 320. Live out the rest of the days of all A320 planes then scrap them from business operations and exclusively use the E190.ProsCons E190 provides better cost margins Employees do not like the E190 as much Using proven Southwest model of one type of plane- Would need to have a central hub in Kansas Not wasting the remaining life of the A320s Make suppliers upset Unique market of medium range planes, opportunity for growth Alternative 3 Scrap the E190. Live out the rest of the days of all E190 planes then scrap them from business operations and exclusively use the A320.ProCons Employees like the A320 better Make suppliers upset Using proven Southwest model of one type of plane Miss out on better cost margins of the E190 be to be profitable in the past Utilization of the new hub at JFK being builtDecision CriteriaThe aforementioned alternatives need to be weighted with the below criteria prior to choosing a recommendation.Employee SatisfactionCustomer SatisfactionHow upset the Suppli er will bePotential growth in the near future tributeWe as a team recommend that JetBlue use alternative two. The reason that we have picked alternative two is due to the fact that it best fit our decision criteria. Even though employees are not as fond of the E190 compared to the old A320 we feel that they would adjust to the new setting quicker if that plane was their only option, this also includes the pilots and maintenance crew. Customers seem to like the E190 and the satisfaction should come more from JetBlues new policies and procedure from the Bill of Rights. We believe that the supplier will not be as upset due to the fact that JetBlue will still be buying these planes from them as they are needed.The E190 gave the best cost margins for potential growth in the near future compared to the legacy carriers and regional jets making it a the clear choice. In order to completely satisfy the entire market of the United Sates JetBlue would need a new central hub located in Kansas C ity, as mentioned by Rob Maruster. By only having one type of aircraft in the fleet it allows JetBlues structure to act like Southwest Airlines, with their Boeing 737, and allow their ground and flight personnel decreasing the average turnaround time between landing and get back in the air.ImplementationImplementation should begin with the stopping of purchasing or fixing the A320 planes. Once enough debt has been paid off from the saved money begin to construct a new central terminal in Kansas City. In the long term additional E190s will need to be purchased enabling JetBlue to service more cities throughout the U.S. and keep the turnarounds quick.Contingency PlanIf failing to be competitive and popular with the exclusive aircraft model we suggest seek to become an international airline and flying across to boarder countries like Canada and Mexico. This would not require additional capital in planes but merely agreements with countries regulations.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
The paper revolves more or less a fable that talks about the systems development and mechanismation in a certain organization, for which the managers are discussing the methodologies, project management, training users, involving users in gathering the requirements, and communicating among them. Mr. John is the director of IT department, Stephen is the CEO of the society, and Harry is the Leader selected for the new project.Stephen Hi there John, I catch heard you have some kind of proposal for the company whats that?John Youre right, and the company desperately take to introduce some change in its IT systems.Stephen Im eager to listen to it please go on with your proposal.John Sir as we all know that the entropy database system of our company has been experiencing some shortcomings in the recent past, and is not able to assimilate the changes of this dynamic environment efficiently. Hence, our company needs to introduce and implement a new ERP system as soon as possible that matches the needs and demands of changing requirements of our company, customers, suppliers, and industry.Stephen Hmmm Agree So, have you come with the methods to bring it on considering the appeal benefit analysis along with SWOT analysis? Listen John, (leaning forward) this is not an easier a job, and surely requires perfection in every aspect as to retard losses from huge investments.John Yeah, I understand (Sigh)Stephen Whats up with the project management and other problems that might come up in the preceding and implementation stage? How are we going to handle all that? And yes, what about the costs or investment can we afford it at this time of status?John Im totally aware of such issues that might stir up Mr. Stephen, and to overcome or prevent them, we must have a leader for this project. You know Mr. Harry I guess, dont you? Due to his excellent leadership skills, he would be the project manager who would look around and lead the overall implementation of new ERP syste m.And yes, costs are high but affordable you know we are not in a mail to sacrifice our companys productivity and efficiency for just an additional one time investment. Harry, explain the rest to Mr. Stephen about how would you handle the training programs, information gathering, and communication.Harry Well Mr. Stephen, our employees would definitely need to be trained since the new ERP system is a lot polar than the existing one. We would hire expertise from different companies who have the same ERP system, and on-the-job training sessions would be arranged for few weeks.Stephen Sounds good, but what about the requirements that the employees would feel to have for the purpose of customizing their work needs and have familiarity with the system?Harry Hmmm For that, the ERP system would help them Yes, the system has different modules for different usages in different departments. Moreover, employees would be provided with the tools that are necessarily required to accomplish a giv en task.John (interrupting in between) definitely, and as far as the communication of this change and problems are concerned, there would not be much issue. The reason is that our company already has an open-book management policy and a friendly atmosphere that encourages communication and socializing (Daft, 1997).Stephen Hmmm Considering all that reasoning, Im impressed. Sure guys, lets go on. Bring the new ERP system here. JReferencesDaft. R. L. (1997). Management. Fourth Edition. U.S.A. The Dryden Press
Friday, May 24, 2019
Annie Dillards es sound out, The Chase, uses earthly concerny rhetorical component parts in the thesis to reach her auditory sense some of these include parataxis, climax, and hyperbole. In the essay Dillard states that The point was that he had chased us passionately without giving up, and so he had caught us. This helps clarify the thesis as, childishness is a playful time and adults should maintain a playful spirit. The Chase is about the germ and her neighborhood friends throwing snow balls at autos one wintertime sidereal day. The day was difference well and without trouble, no adults were bothering their fun, until someone hit a black Buick that was driving down the pass.The musical composition in the car then stopped the car and got out and started to chase the children. The man chased them through hedges, down streets, every backyard and block after block. At this point it was only Dillard and her friend Mikey running from the man because the other children when their separate ways. Eventually the man caught them because the children grew tired. The man only said You stupid kids. Dillard describes this statement as redundant, a mere formality. Dillard believes the point of the chase was that the man chased them passionately, without giving up, and all he did was say those three words she will never forget.Dillard uses many rhetorical elements to help prove the thesis, one of these is climax. She uses this element to keep a suspenseful mood for the reader wanting and time lag to see what happens next. An congresswoman of this in the story is when the black Buick was coming down the street and when the car makes it to them they unleash snowballs at the car.The example of climax in this part of the story is when the driver starts to open the door this is a climax because the reader is waiting to see what happens and starts asking questions in their head like what is the driver deprivation to do? is he going to hurt the kids or is he just going to yell at them? Another example of climax occurs as the driver finally catches the kids on the top of the hill by their jackets. This is an example of climax because the author builds up the essay by adding suspenseful phrases and because the reader is asking questions again such as is the driver going to hurt the children or is he going to bring them back to their parents. Both examples help the audience comprehend Dillards thesis by conveying to the reader that adults should have a more bare(a) spirit.Another rhetorical element that Dillard uses in her essay is hyperbole she uses this element to exaggerate parts of the story to keep the reader interested. An example of this is when Dillard is talking about what would have happened if they ran all of the way to the Panama Canal and what the man would have done if the man caught them. Dillard says, He could have fried Mikey Fahey and me in boiling oil, say or dismembered us in piecemeal, or staked us to anthills.Another exam ple of a hyperbole is If in that snowy backyard the driver of the black Buick had cut false our heads, Mikeys and mine, I would have died happy, for nothing has required so much of me since as being chased all over Pittsburg in the middle of winterrunning terrified, exhaustedby this sainted, skinny, furious red headed man who wished to have a word with us. In this quote, Dillard is exaggerating the fact that the man would have cut bump off their heads and that she would have died happy because the man had committed to chase them all day, meanwhile, all the man wanted to do was scold them.Dillard also uses a third rhetorical element in her essay, parataxis. Dillard uses this to help her story by writing independent clauses to emphasize what she is writing. An example of this in Dillards essay is after Mikey and she get caught by the man. Dillard writes We three stood staggering, half blinded, coughing, in an obscure hilltop backyard a man in his twenties, a boy, a girl. He had rel eased our jackets, our pursuer, our captor our hero He knew we werent going anywhere.This helps in explaining the thesis that this experience was just like a playful game of tag between the man and the two friends. Another example of the rhetorical element is It was a long time before he could speak. I had some difficulty at first recalling why we were there. My lips felt futile I couldnt see out of the sides of my eyes I kept coughing. This example shows how tired they were from running around the community that almost seems like a childish game of tag, explaining the thesis.Throughout The Chase, Dillard utilizes rhetorical elements that serve as a function. They help her convey meaning and purpose in her writing. Three examples that I plunge evident were climax, hyperbole and parataxis. The use of all three of these elements made the story interesting and ultimately leads the reader to a better understanding of the thesis because it creates a more lifelike feel to the story by the reader being able to relate to it.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Introduction International trade and competitive advantages in the approachs of doing in china have brought numerous opportunities for mainland Chinas trades but also generated challenges due to protectionism from its foreign competitors. Consequently, there have been numerous trade cases against China, including anti- chuck out, anti- subvention, in many economic sectors. The very current trade case involving China is the US accusing Chinese manufacturers of dumping photovoltaic (PV) panels in the US merchandise and the Chinese government unfairly subsidizing its own solar labor.In fact, the USs trade balances in polysilicon products between both the US and China, and the US and the world significantly deficit while Chinas polysilicon cells and modules employment has additiond dramatically (The Kearney Alliance 2012). This essay claims that, the surge in PV exports does not necessarily mean that the Chinese government has subsidized its PV manufacturers illegally, and Chine se solar manufacturers low values do not necessarily imply they are selling their PV products below the apostrophize of production.Importantly, imposing such(prenominal) significant imports tax is highly likely to undermine not only the bilateral trade between two countries but also long-term benefits of both countries. First, this essay provides an overview of the US-China PV trade case then explains why China solar diligence has been growing dramatically and finally it analyses what the consequences index be if the US imposes a countervailing and antidumping tariff on Chinas PV. BackgroundOn October 2011, seven US-based PV manufacturers headed by SolarWorld Industries America reported China on a double-anti case to US department of employment (DOC) and US International Trade Organization (ITO). The seven manufacturers, which later formed Coalition for American Solar Manufacturing (CASM), accused China for dumping their PV module products to US market and giving a huge amoun t of export subsidy to this industry which in turn causing severe injuries to US PV manufacturers.Several investigations have been carried place by both DOC and ITC for this issue, as the coalition accused China government providing cash relents, heavily discounted resources, huge contributes and credits, tax exemption, inpennyives and rebate and export grant insurance to the industry. In its final determination held on 10 October 2012, DOC proposed 18. 32 per cent to 249. 96 per cent of anti-dumping and 14. 78 per cent to 15. 97 per cent of countervailing duty.Further actions, including issuing or not issuing anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders, testament be make after ITC final determination (US DOC 2012). Photovoltaic industry is a new emerging industry as a response to the threat of get-up-and-go shortage and environmentally-unfriendly fossil fuel-based heartiness. Governments issued supportive policies, including giving significant account of subsidy considering h igher production toll of this new energy industry compared to that of conventional one.In case of China, the country issued a PV market policy in 2007 that included deployment, enthronization and research and development supports under the scheme of middle and long term program of renewable energy development set by National education and Reform Commission (NDRC) targeting the energy of 300MWp by 2010 and 1. 8 GWp by 2020 of PV cells installed (Grau et al. 2011). This policy and its comparative advantage on labors result in excessive growth of China PV industries, making Chinas world market share skyrocketing from 1 per cent in 2001, 5 per cent in 2005 to 50 per cent in 2010.In 2012, four of the top five PV producers are Chinese overtaking US manufacturers which occupy 27 per cent in 2006, decreased to 5 per cent in 2010 of the total world share (The Kearney Alliance 2012). Why has Chinas PV grown so big so fast? There are a number of reasons why the PV industry in China has expe rienced tremendous growth within a short span of time. For instance, China produced about 1 per cent of the worlds solar cells in 2001, and by 2010 it produced nearly almost half (The Kearney Alliance 2012).The same rate of growth was achieved by lacquer and Germany during their PV industry expansion however the key difference is it took them twice as long (The Kearney Alliance 2012). First, such fast paced growth would not be come-at-able without assistance from the government. The Chinese government has been providing many different kinds of assistance to the manufacturers to promote the growth of the PV industry in China. The governments policy to boost the industry came in the form of loans, tax credits and grants.Additionally, some of the resources required for manufacturing of PV cells were subsidized or discounted to encourage manufacturers to produce more. In 2011, the Chinese government initiated a Five-Year project to induce further growth of the PV industry well into t he year 2015. Second, it is estimated that help from the government allowed some Chinese manufacturers of PV cells to have somewhere between 18-30 per cent cost advantage over their US counterparts (The Kearney Alliance 2012).The government alone is not responsible for the cost advantage enjoyed by the Chinese manufacturers scale and vertical integration, and mash costs constitute significant part of the cost advantage. The scale and vertical integration of some of the top tier Chinese manufacturers means that they gain cost advantages due economy of scale larger factories can produce at a lower cost, and additionally they tend to own or control majority of the companies in the supply chain as well as distributions outlets thusly allowing them to maximize profit from supply, production and distributions.Moreover, labour costs are relative seamy compared to the US, especially for unskilled labour, where China has approximately 80 per cent labour cost advantage over the US counter parts (The Kearney Alliance 2012). Third, besides the assistance and cost advantages, some, if not all, Chinese manufacturers tend to offer trade credit, where solar military unit customers can purchase the panels without having to pay upfront and are given 60 years payment window to complete the deal.This provides tremendous financial benefit to the customers, as they will have some time for installation of the panels without paying upfront for the panels thus the cost of downtime during the installation is not born by the customers. Finally, growth of Chinas PV industry is also due to the extreme projected growth of domesticated rent. In 2010, Chinese domestic demand for solar power was only 3 per cent of the worlds demand, and by the end 2014 this is expected to append to 26 per cent (EPIA 2011). Is Chinese government providing illegal subsidies? Are Chinese manufacturers dumping their products on the U.S. market? The US government accuses the Chinese government of providing the export subsidies, which according to WTO rules is illegal. However, the Chinese government claims that the subsidies, grants, loans and discounts given to the manufacturers are intended to promote the solar power industry and make it cost competitive with conventional power sources. It is worth noting that its not just Chinese government that provides subsidies, the US also provides substantial subsidies to its solar power industry albeit to a slightly lesser extent and lower amount in dollar terms.For instance, the US government does not provide land grants or discounts, and the total stimulus loan/loan guarantee is only US$1. 3 billion compared to US$30 billion from the Chinese government (Goodrich et al. 2011). The US Department of Commerce accuses Chinese manufacturers of dumping PV cells on the US market. According to the WTO (WTO, 2012), dumping occurs when a company exports a good to foreign market at a price less than the price it normally charges in its domestic market . The US considers Chinese economy as non-market economy, thus the Chinese domestic price of PV cells cannot be determined directly from the Chinese market.Therefore, third or surrogate country needs to be chosen in order to determine the fair value of Chinese PV cells. The U. S Department of Commerce has chosen Thailand from a list of 6 countries as the surrogate country. This is unlikely to reflect an appropriate normal price for the Chinese PV since the costs of PV production in China is normally lower than those in Thailand. Possible consequences Both sides are currently still waiting for ITCs final determination. If an affirmative determination is make in late November that imports of PV cells from China, no matter being assembled into modules or not, leads to US omestic industry being or is threatened to be materially injured, Commerce will issue the Anti-Dumping and Countervailing duties order. Back when the preliminary determinations was announced earlier this year, in which the DOC assessed countervailing duties ranging at a lower rate, most Chinese manufacturers breached a sight of substitute and continue their business in U. S. as before. However, DOCs final determination assessed significant higher countervailing duties at 14. 78 per cent -15. 24 per cent, comparing to its 2. 9 per cent-4. 3 per cent in the preliminary (US DOC 2012), undoubtedly it will have a severe impact on Chinas manufacturers and international solar industry. As the display case of DOC and ITCs investigation is PV cells that are manufactured in China, Chinese firms could shift manufacture or directly purchase PV cells from early(a) countries to avoid tariffs on modules made of Chinese cells. An ideal location is Taiwan, which is already a robust solar cell manufacturing market. Although it is 8 per cent higher than using its domestic produced cells, cells made in Taiwan still have a 10-22 per cent cost advantage than the ones in the US (Wesoff 2012).Not to mention its rela tive closeness to China. However, using PV cells from other countries other than the US and assembles into PV modules is not a proper long-term strategy. The US could also initiate another investigation into Chinese PV modules assembled, using other countries cells. Thus, this is only a transitional strategy for Chinese manufacturers before Chinas domestic demand for PV products picks up to ameliorate industrys excessive supply situation. On the other hand, the imposition of high countervailing and anti-dumping duties might also affect the U.S. solar industry. In 2011, manufacturing only contributed 24000, or 24 per cent of the total employment in the solar industry (The Solar innovation 2011). Punitive tariffs against Chinese cells will lead to a price jump on PV cells and modules in the US market, it causes the cost of solar projects in the US to increase and the implementation and demand for solar products to rule out, which ultimately transits into lower employment in other se ctors in the PV industry. The Coalition for Affordable Solar thrust commissioned a study showing that a 50 er cent tariff will indeed boost employment in the cell and module manufacturing sector. However, this tariff jump would also result in a huge decrease in employment from slowing-down discretionary spending by solar buyers and an overall demand decrease in other sectors in the whole PV industry. The net impact on total employment would be 15 per cent -40 per cent decline in the US PV industry compared to its 2010 numbers (Berkman et al. 2012). This means the resurrection of the US cells and module manufacturers is at the cost of the rest and the vast majority of the US PV industry.Another potential issuance is that Chinese manufacturers could retaliate against imposed tariffs. The US currently still has a huge positive net export of polysilicon and PV manufacturing equipment to China. In 2011, China attributed to around 30 per cent of the US total net exports of polysilicon a nd 60 per cent of PV capital equipment (GTM 2012). To protest against imposed tariffs and duties, Chinese manufactures could ramp up their own production of polysilicon or turn to other countries to fill the gap, effectively cutting out the US firms in the solar supply chain.Conclusion In sum, Governments in most industrial countries including the US and China have been promoting bare energy technology in recent years. Among the worlds solar producers, Chinas booming renewable energy industry, especially solar industry has dominated world solar markets and challenges American leadership. President Obama affirmed the USs concern about clean energy technology to make sure that we win the competition. I dont want the new breakthrough technologies and the new manufacturing taking place in China and India (Morris et al. 012, p1). Meanwhile the subsidy to energy, including solar industry, has been successful in China (rapidly increase its market share of world polysilicon production), th e US policy subsidy on clean energy has not brought any expected result, even failure (i. e. bankruptcy of Solyndrathe California solar firm) (Robert et al. 2010). Trying to protect the domestic solar industry by preventing other countrys polysilicon exports is highly unlikely to be a wise and fair policy.In particular, countervailing and anti-dumping duties would result in a significant decline in exports of polysilicon and PV manufacturing equipment to China as well as a fall in employment. Indeed, China could have several ways rather than bring the case to the WTO in responding to the trade barriers imposed by the US, but what the US needs to consider its long term benefit. The competitive price of Chinese solar as a cheap source of clean energy which potentially enhances the US economic growth, creates jobs for Americans and tackles with climate change.ReferenceBerkman, M, Cameron, L Chang, J 2012, The employment impacts of proposed tariffs on Chinese manufactured photovoltaic cells and modules, The Brattle Group, Washington, D. C. viewed 16 September 2012, . EPIA see European Photovoltaic Industry Association. European Photovoltaic Industry Association 2011, Global market outlook for Photovoltaics until 2015, viewed 12 Oct 2012, http//www. epia. org/index. php? eID=tx_nawsecuredlu=0file=fileadmin/EPIA_docs/publications/epia/EPIA-Global-Market-Outlook-for-Photovoltaics-until-2015. pdft=1351601058hash=65fb67c830a17dc3384646f83c30e104Goodrich, A, James, T Woodhouse, M 2011, Solar PV manufacturing cost analysis US competitiveness in a global industry, Stanford University, viewed 25 Oct 2012, lt http//www. nrel. gov/docs/fy12osti/53938. pdfgt. Grau, T, Huo M Neuhoff, K 2011, Survey of photovoltaic industries and policies in Germany and China, Climate Policy Initiative, Berlin. GTM 2012, U. S. Solar Energy Trade Assessment 2011 Trade Flows and house servant Content for Solar Energy-Related Goods and Services in the United States, Greentech Media, Washington, D.C. Morris, AC, Nivola, PS Schultze, CL 2012, Clean energy revisiting the challenges of industrial policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. Roberts, MJ, Lassiter, JB Nanda, R 2010, US Department of Energy & Recovery Act Funding bridging the Valley of Death , Harvard Business School. The Solar Foundation 2011, Nation Solar Jobs Census 2011, viewed 12 October 2012, . The Kearney Alliance, 2012, China solar industry and the US anti-dumping/anti-subsidy case, China Global Trade.USDOC 2012, Fact sheet Commerce finds dumping and subsidization of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules from the Peoples commonwealth of China, Department of Commerce, The United States of America, viewed 15 October 2012, . Wesoff, E 2012, Breaking news Commerce Dept. Chinese solar panel dumping verdict is now in, Greentech Media, viewed 17 October 2012, . WTO see World Trade Organisation World Trade Organisation 2012, Anti-dumping, subsidies, safeguards con tingencies, etc, The World Trade Organisation, viewed 10 October 2012, http//www. wto. org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/agrm8_e. htm
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Dystopian Visions An imaginative society consisting of oppressive squalor in which all be heavily confine by the absolute superiority of the ruling party. A society where repression and restrictions seem boundless, while the individual liberty of the citizen seems boundlessly obstructed. A society where mental need and deception is the goal of the guardian a society where misery and poverty are thrust upon the unsuspectingly loyal citizens a society where the well- being of the spate are of imperceptible acknowledgement, yet its inhabitants have been manipulated into perceiving such as utopian.Contrary to their deceit induced perceptions, these characteristics are quite the opposite of utopian, they are dystopian some(prenominal) authors portray their own vision of a dystopia through novels. Two highly intriguing dystopian novels are George Orwells, 1984, and Ray Bradburys, Fahrenheit 451. Their visions were strikingly like as the themes were some(prenominal) based on totali tarian governments maintaining authority through propaganda and mental/social deprivation (mostly corporate and bureaucratic controls, although technological control was utilized).The protagonists find themselves in almost identical situations, for they have become enlightened of the misery, sacrifice, and evil that their society possesses. But they must conceal their knowledge, leaving them trapped, although they could not keep it hidden forever. In both novels came the mental sheltering of the society to thwart contradicting or rebellious thought that would come with the enlightenment of the sacrifices the society was withstanding. This social and mental control would render the absolute majority of society incapable of independent thought, allowing the injustices to proceed.Forced ignorance entombed the evil the government had laid upon them and if one were to unveil the ignorance, they had to conceal it with their lives. In both novels, those who could not rampart their enli ghtenment would fall victim to the strong and cunning police forces of the society. These forces would brutally murder and vanquish the existence of those free of the governments mental sanitation. As shown by the thought police in 1984. This shows the extent to which the extinction of information and individuality was pursued.Another shared characteristic, although much more obvious in 1984, is the work of propaganda in manipulating the heap. In Fahrenheit 451, the propaganda came in the form of death. They would publically kill those who disobeyed, just as you see in the end of movie when they murder Montag. In 1984, the society was infested with life-sized companion propaganda. With posters, Two bits Hate, inflated numbers, and constant reassurance of Big Brother being the flawless and great protector of everyone, they deceived the people. I would like to point out the fact that they didnt share the same figurehead type worship.In 1984, everything and everyone was focused an d revolved around Big Brother, whereas in Fahrenheit 451, there wasnt as much as the singular idol to worship and direct praise towards. These societies painted by Bradbury and Orwell both utilized mental and social hindrance, through strong regulations. This type of control is otherwise known as the bureaucratic control. In Fahrenheit 451 they put sarcoid restrictions on literature, and would incinerate all books they could locate. In 1984, they were absolutely relentless with their regulations, level off the wrong facial expression could get you killed.Corporate control was also highly utilized in these societies. Specifically, they would brainwash you as a daily routine called Two Minutes Hate in the, 1984, novel. Here is an example of the Two Minute Hates effect on the people, a desire to kill, to torture, to smash faces in with a sledge hammer, seemed to flow through the whole group of people like an electric current (Orwell14). The government successfully manipulated the inh abitants into loving and feeling completely dependent to Big Brother and the government, while completely despising whoever Big Brother portrayed as the enemy. Big Brother altered everything to make him seem absolutely flawless and created a false sense of superior and modify living conditions. All of this advertising and false media was not unique to, 1984, though. In Fahrenheit 451, the government would use the media to show the deaths of those who broke regulations in place. Technological control was a third control used, as Telescreen monitors were implanted everywhere in 1984, to ensure complete surveillance to avoid any risk of conspiracies or diversion from their norms.In Fahrenheit 451, they had robotic dogs that could sniff out and locate any human needed. The protagonists in these novels, Montag and Winston, are both unique to their society for they had the power to unveil the mask of ignorance and be enlightened to the true colors of the society they lived in. They both felt trapped and desperately needed to escape or alter their society. The differences between them and the others are made even more apparent by their wives and how they end up feeling about them. Winston mentally nicknamed his wife, the human sound track, (Orwell66) during their relationship.This being very similar to Montags feeling towards his bland and uninteresting wife as well. They both are overwhelmed by the now painfully visible misery and evil their society consists of, but must protect such thoughts with their lives. A significant difference between the two characters is the fact that Guy Montag was successful with his attempt to better society, for his city was destroyed leaving it up to him and some others to rebuild society. This unlike Winston, who was captured, tortured, and then allowed back into society with a new conformist attitude.These novels are criticizing the paths and patterns that human governments tend to take. With governments concealing/censoring inf ormation from the people and corruption being so widespread and apparent these authors are presenting a possible outcome of our chronic blunder. Orwell was even directly criticizing the rule of Stalin in his day and how horrible such a society is and can be. These societies reflect the negatives of our society in a bloated and extreme focussing and if these relevant evils are not eliminated, our society is at risk of being reduced to a dreaded dystopia.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Divine Myth True fables or bothegory proper. Stories in which the main characters are super natural beings. Gener on the wholey relieve some aspect of the orbit Example would be genus genus genus Zeus over throwing his father and the related stories creation of fictions and of the ancient greeks Nyx (Night) the abstract concept of night disposed to a few human characteristics. Union of Nyx and Erebus (Darkness) produced their opposites, aether Radiance and herma day Legends (Sagas) Latin word is Legenda something that must be read. Originated referred to Christian Stories of the saints. Stories of heavy(p) industrial plant from humans.(Semi-divine), usually narrates the events of the human past Stories of the fifth column war and the exploits of Achilles and the other Greek heroes fit into this category. Troy and Legend Heinrich Schliemann 1822-1890 Believed that Homers stories about Troy were ground on historical truth Funded archaeological digs at Troy and later(prenomi nal) at Mycenae Founded a huge horde of gold and jewels, Priams regard Folktales Stories whose characters are ordinary people or creatures folk takes divine service both to entertain and teach or equitableify. Greeks had a work for folk talk, Ainos (Simple fable)Hesiod Works and geezerhood The hawk and the nightingale Motifs Regular appearance of certain identifiable narrative patterns in a story The modern novel we see the motif of water supply or light which consistently comes up n the story, serves as a thread running throughout Simple motifs include double (Twins, doppelgangers) dragons, etc Theories of Myth fabrication Greek word meaning say something differently Similar to symbolism Physical Allegory THEAGENES (6TH CENTURY B. C. )First use of allegory to interpret myth Myths about battles between paragons really represented natural conflicts between naturalcauses Based his interpretations on opposites. One god may represent fire and some other water.Clashes represent e ternal conflicts between fire and water False Etymologies Means getting to the root of a word Cronus (father of Zeus) Greeks tried to relate Cronus to Crono (Time) Cronus eats children (Time devours everything) in time Cronus and Crono are non etymologically related words Historical Allegory Euhemerism An interpretation created by Euhemerus (ca 300 B. C. ) Opposed to physical allegory, Euhemerism says myths tell us historical truths not philosophical truths idols are historical figures, human kings ruled long ago and were transformed into stories by gods Related to Euhemerism and false etymologies is the idea that myths were formed by an understanding. Actaeoniane are not torn apart by his dogs, but vilifyed by spending all his m wholenessy on hunting dogs The Minoans Ca 2200 B. C. E ca 1450 B. C. E Elaborate palaces significant wealth and technology Bull is an important religious symbol Worshipped female fertility goddess No defensive structures- instruction of the sea Non Ind o-Europeans Non Greek Speakers (Linear A script not deciphered) Thera (Modern Santorini)A rich Minoan culture that was destroyed ca 1630 BCE The End of the Minoans ca 1450 B. C. E Minoan Civilization was destroyed and palaces burned Palace at Cnossus Mycenaean Ca 1600 B. C. E- 1150 B. C. E Indo-European Greek Speakers (linear B script) Mycenaes ruled by potent king Warlike people- Bronze weaponry, chariots. 1150 B. C. E, palaces destroyed by fire. Linear B language lost for 400 years until Archeic Period Re-emerged as Greek Alphabets closelipped Eastern Influence Mesopotamia Land between Rivers (Tigris and Euphrates, modern Iraq) all important(p) source for myths Non Indo-Europeans speaking society.( linguistic group than the Greeks) Greek myths of the origin of the present world order, a universal flood and other myths show the influence of the near east. Other important peoples that influenced Greek myth Sumerians, Semites, Akk September 12, 2013 Creation Myths 1 Hesiods Theogo ny Ca. 700 B. C. E 2 works survive intact (fragments of some of his other works are extent) About the origin of the universe and the ascension of Zeus to kings of the gods Works and long time The account of the fall of man from a golden age to one of the iron Elaborated on the personification of various aspects of life.Eg Gaea is the bring forth spirit Gaea is in pain because of Uranos hatred of their mutilate spring Uranos imprisons his materializationest children to Tartarus Succession myth (Uranos feared that his children would take his power away from him) Gaea encourages Cronus to exact revenge Cronus threw Uranos crotch into the sea, which gave rise to Aphrodite (God of love/sexuality) The Giants (Erinyes, Furies) and Melian ash-tree Nymphs sprang from Uranos spilled declivity Cronus warned by Gaea (Mother) and Uranos (Father), would be afraid of their off springs Cronos (Time) and Rhea had Zeus, Poseidon (Earth Shaker), Hades, Hera, Demeter, andHestia Once born, Cronos eats his children to prevent from being overthrown Rhea, advice from her parents hid her youngest child, Zeus on the island of Crete in a subvert. Rhea gave Cronus a stone in place of Zeuss place Zeus raised in a cave by nymphs and fed milk from the caprine animal Amalthea and the honey from the bee Melissa Protected by the Corybantes (Whirlers)/ Curetes young menMetis (Cleverness) give Cronus an emetic (causes him to vomit his sons and daughters) The stone render the famous omphalos placed in Delphi (Center of the earth) Rhea and Cronos, and Gaia and UranusThe Titanomachy (War against the Titans) Titans led by Cronus, Olympians led by Zeus Some of the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires (the Hundred-handers) helped Zeus.The Cyclopes forge Zeuss thunderbolt. Eventually the Olympians won Zeus banishes Cronus to Tartarus, along with the other Titans where they are watched by the Hundred-handers The women were neutral, they were not banished. Epimetheus, Prometheus, and Atlas were spar ed. Atlass punishment was that he had to hold up the sky at the edge of the world Typhoesus/Typhons/Typhus Typheous is the youngest son of Tartarus and GaeaHe was so terrifying that the Olympian gods fled to Egypt and disguised themselves as animals. In a fierce battle (hurled, torn to sinews) Zeus thrashinged Typheous- Mt. Etna(Typheous was being held down there)Dragon combat motif (Characteristics where they are born inwardly the earth) (Dragons represent feminity Zeus represents masculine values Birth of Athena Zeus escapes the pattern of the succession myth (overthrown) Zeus has married Metis and she was pregnant Zeus swallowed Metis (Assimilated news into himself) Gave him a school principalache (Cracks his skull into allowing Athena to come out of his head)One of Zeuss favorite children Gigantomachy not mentioned by Hesiod Giants were urged to attack Olympus Another test of Zeuss powers The Olympians defeat the Giants, in a great battle. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades divide the w orld among themselves Prophecy of the son of a mortal mother Hercules. (Was the hero Zeus needed to defeat the giants) Giants urged to attack by Gaea Creation Myths 2The Fall of Man The Punishment of Prometheus Prometheus cultural hero (Gives mortals a chance) Said to be the creator of humans Prometheus tricked Zeus at Mekone unto reserving the edible parts of the sacrifice for humansGods get the bones and fat Etiology (Explains the reason) Greek sacrificial usage For the trick, Zeus punishes the humans (Withholds the fire)Prometheus and Fire Prometheus steals the fire back from heaven in a fennel-stalk Punishment for this trickery Zeus sends Pandora to men and chains Prometheus, years later freed by Hercules. Prometheus gets a visitation from an eagle every day to peck out his liver Pandora (All gifted) Name means all-gifted because of all the gods contributed to her creation and endowed her with many a(prenominal) charms. Hephaestos- Fashions her from the earth Athena- Gives her domestic s bug outs.Aphrodite- gives her grace, beauty, desire and the ability to spark sexual longing Graces and Persuasion Necklaces Epimetheus (after thought) is told by his brother Prometheus (fore thought) to not accept any gifts from Zeus He sees Pandora and accepts Pandora She carries a JAR ( not a box) In the jar, it contains all the evil and good things When she opens the jar, all the evil things fall to earth while the good things vanish to heaven/ Only hope is caught in the jar 4/5 Ages of Men Hesiods Works and Days and Ovids Metamorphoses Ovid 43 B. C. E 17 B. C. E Works include Art of Love and the Metamorphoses.Exiled by Augustus Zeus Father of Gods and Men Derived from the Indo-European Sky God di-cf. Germanic Tiu and Indic Dyaus Ritar Roman Jupiter blotch Gather Aegis bearing Zeus Goat Skin a magical object that represented Zeus power, it often represented as a shield with snake headed tassels. Zeus lent it to Athena Many Lovers (Eurynome (Graces) Mnemosyne (M uses) Ganymede (cup-bearer to the gods) Themis (rules and order) Many offspring (Sarpedon, Zeuss Son, Minoss brother Moerae fates Clotho spinner, Lachesis apportioner and Atropos she who cannot be dark aside Horae Seasons.Zeus is renowned for his physical strength which guarantees his preeminence over all beings Signature weapon which was the Lightning Bolt Zeus Kataibates Zeus who descends Zeus is associated with the misrepresent (Crete, power, fertility) and the Eagle God of law and justice Dike- from the root to point out Xenia (Formal guest friendship) cf. Xenophobia As The father of gods and men, Zeus is a metaphorical father who oversees all that occurs on earth and in the heaven. Literal father to a large number of gods and heroes- famous for his numerous consorts and paramours. 114 at some counts. inner procreation as a metaphor for agricultural production- rain semen, earth- the womb Famous story from IIiad associates Zeuss exploits and the growth of vegetation Aphrodi tes damp/belt (a symbol of sexuality and sexual consent) & Heras use of it leads to grasses, flowers and plants springing from the earth on which they reclined. Hera Who sits on a Golden Throne Hera (Juno) Zeuss married woman Marriage and child birth Mother of Ares (by Zeus), Eileithyia, Hebe(personification of youth) & Hephaestus (Crippled and sickishe fun of ) (Two versions of parentage) Persecutes Zeuss mistresses and illegitimate children.Quarrels with Zeus incessantly Seduces Zeus to turn tide of the Trojan War Zeus remember when I strung you up Poseidon Dark-Haired Lord of the Deep God of the sea and earthquakes Associated with the horse (drowned in a pool to sacrifice to Poseidon) Produced Pegasus with the Gorgon Medusa (grotesque offspring Polyphemus) Hades Plutos Wealthy One Name means invisible unseen dead and the facelessness of death (Helm of invisilibty) never leave behindingly allows anyone who comes to his house to leave An immortal god but not an Olympian. Apol lo Origin of Apollo unknown Lycian = Lycia (Asia Minor)?Or association with Hyperborean ( 3 Winters mos. In the far north)= Nordic Origin? Born on Delos ( Floating island Heras persecution of Titaness Leto light of day Artemis is his twin sister Depicted as a physically perfect young man and un-bearded and with long hair. God of music, aristocratic concerns and light (later came to be associated with the sun) God of illness (arrows- Lord of mouse, they bring disease) and healing (Asclepius, his son was the god of medicine) God of prophecy killed Python to name his Oracle of Delphi (Dragon-combat cf. Marduk vs Tiamat and Zeus vs Typhoeus)- shaman.Known for his unhappy loves Daphine, Cassandra, Sibyl at Cumae, Coronis (Asclepius Mother) Hermes Psychompus Mercury (Soul guide, or the leader of the souls) God of travel, commerce, boundaries, theft and trickery (God that was revere from the thieves and bandits, and try to trick people) Messenger to the gods (Called quicksilver because he was fast) Important myths Births, Invention of Lyre( by killing and gutting a Tortoise), Killing of Argus (Monster with 100 hundreds, watcher of 1 of Zeuss lovers) Worshipped as a Herm at crossroads and even doorways Zeus had an affair with a star, and Hermes was born.Pan Son of Hermes Hoofs and legs of a goat with human features The gods name is likely from Indo-European root meaning to feed (cf Pasture) The inspiration for later representations of the devil Hephaetus, God of Smiths Lame smith god- highly skilled and ingenious 2 versions of his birth Born from Hera alone (b/c of Athena) or son of Zeus and Hera 2 versions of expulsion from Olympus Zeus threw him off for taking Heras side in an argument(landed on Lemnos) or Hera threw him from Olympus in disgust (Hephaetus golden throne of revenge and his subsequent return to Olympus) Typhoeuss fucking in Mt.Etna Husband of Aphrodite (Ares & Aphrodite trapped in bed) Hateful Ares (God of War) Aphrodite, Artemis, and Athena Sept 24 Aphrodite Of the Golden Daughty Goddess of Love Born from sea-foam (ophros)- Hesiod (Roman Venus Always go with by Eros (Winged boy with bow and arrows or flaming torch) Also Himmeros= desire and the Graces) Only Athena, Artemis and Hestia (Virgins for life, did not want to endeavor into Aphrodites powers) were immune to Aphrodites powers Not before Greek (cf. Eastern fertility goddesses, Inanna, Ishstar, Astarte)- Cyprus (transit point) Cypris & Cythera.Cyprus is the doorway between the East and the west Temple prostitution (Corinth & Cythera) Important Myths Birth (theogony) Hermaphroditus (fused with Nymph Salmacis, became both genders by fusing with him) Priapus (Dionysus or Hermes)- Boned Aphrodite & Ares-Boned Aphrodite & Anchises (Aeneas lone survivor of the Trojan War)-Boned Artemis Potnia Theron Mistress of Animals Not a Greek Name- earlier (possibly as far back as the Paleolithic Period) Twin sister of Apollo (Roman Diana) Virgin goddess, but alluring (dangerous) Hunt ress (bow and arrows, deer) Struck by the arrows of Artemis.Scared animals include the bear (Braurania ritual and the Arktoi- little bear) Important Myths Iphigenia (Sacrifice) Daughter of the great Greek general Niobe (Boast about having more kids than Leto) Leto ask Apollo and Artemis to honor Orion (constellation) tried to rape Artemis and Artemis put a scorpion on his head and he died. Actaeon (Human Sacrifice? ) Turned into a Stagg because he saw Artemis nude. Then Actaeons dogs killed him Athena Mistress of the City Takes her name from the city of Athens ( Not the other way around) Roman Minerva Associated with the owl (owl-eyed).Often represented with the helmet, shield and spear, wears the Aegis around her shoulders Goddess of war (justified, defensive, strategic) Goddess of domestic crafts ( e excessly weaving) Important Myths Birth competitor with Poseidon BIRTH OF ERICHTHONIUS (1ST KING OF ATHENS) HEPHATUS JIZZED ON ATHENAS HIPS AND SHE wiped it off and she threw it of f the ground on Athens and spawned the legendary king Erichthonius, he was snaky because he spawned in the earth Arachne (Athena turned her in a spider) She weaved something that made fun of the gods. Athena slashed her face. She then committed felo-de-se.Athena felt sorry for hersuicide and turned her into a spider September 26, 2013 Demeter Meter means mother, De- unknown meaning Greek Goddess most closely associated with the great mother-goddess Goddess of grain and the result Story of Demeter and Persephone comes from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter Close association between the female, the underworld and the cyclical nature of existence Demeters daughter by Zeus is Persephone, as well known as KoreDaughter or girl D. and P. are often called the two Demeters or the two goddesses.The rape of Persephone Persephone is taken to the underworld with Zeuss permission- cf. spousal relationship in ancient Greece Persephone picked flowers as Hades arose from the depths to abduct her Only H ecate and Helius heard her cries Finally, Demeter heard her daughters cries and searched the entire earth for her Demeters Search zilch mortal or immortal would tell Demeter what happened She wandered the earth for nine days with torches in her hands Refused to eat ambrosia or drink nectar and did not bathe Hecate finally told Demeter part of the story and then Helius filled in the rest In disguise, Demeter left Olympus and descended to the towns and cities of men whereshe eventually came to Eleusis (Town outside Athens, center of the Eleusinian Mysteries) The Eleusinian Mysteries At Eleusis, Demeter rested at the Well of the Maiden where she was approached by the daughters of Eleusis king Celeus They asked where she was from and offered her hospitality They hired Demeter as a nanny to their mother, Metaneiras child, Demophoon Lambe tries to entertain Demeter by congress her dirty jokes Metaneira offered Demeter, Kykeon, as barley-drink Demeter tried to repay their kindness by mak ing Demophoon immortal. (Demeter would take the baby and put him in the fire, burning away his mortality).Eventually, Celeus decreed a glorious temple be built in honor of Demeter. Tough Times for Humanity In anger over her daughters abduction, Demeter withdrew all agriculture from the earth Zeus demanded that Demeter relent but she refused. Zeus sent Hermes to Hades to convince him to release Persephone and he agreed (etiological myth re seasons). The heroical of Gilgamesh and lordly Myth Oct 1 Legends are stories about exceptional humans doing exceptional things which are said to narrate episodes from the human past- heroes. chockes were noble or well-born, originally living and breathing people-Homeric kingsand warriors. Eventually these great individuals came to be worshipped as powers dwelling beneath the earth The name of places of the individuals cult where they were worshipped, were called Heroa Heroa were often huge earthen mounds visible on the landscape for great distan ces eg Achilles at Troys Pelops at Olympia and Aeneas near Rome. The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Heroic Pattern Few ancient cultures produced heroic myths however the Mesopotamians and Greeks did The Epic of Gilgamesh greatly influenced later Greek heroic myth(movement of ideas from the East to West in Archaic period)Gilgamesh was a real man who rules the Sumerian City of Uruk c 2600 B. C. E (cuneiform lists of kings) evidence that heroes likely lived at one time. This influence on Greek heroic myth is shown by shared motifs Shared Motifs One of the heros parents may be divine (eg Gilgamesh) but he is like all humans, destined to die. tall(a) or unusual birth of which we know little (Part is missing from the Epic Gilgamesh) Hero is outstanding in his strength and is a menace to those around him, friend, and oppositeness alike. Hero has a male companion (Enkidu created by the gods from clay to temper Gilgameshs spirit)Hero falls under enemy power and is forced to expel impossible ta sks (eg. Kills Humbaba) Taboo broken by hero, terrible price demanded (Enlil the storm-god was angry that Gilgamesh and Enkidu killed Humbaba) Hero resists the temptations of a dangerous woman (Ishtar asks her father Anu to send Bull of Heaven) Hero responsible for friends death (Enkidu dies after he and Gilgamesh kill Bull of Heaven cf. Patroclus & Achilles) Hero goes on a quest to defeat death even traveling to the underworld (Gilgamesh travels across the waters of death to see Utnapushtim (cf. Ziusudra, Atrahasis, Noah, Deucallion)Has help of gods, spirits, or magical objects (Gilgamesh magical stilts/poles) Hero returns home, atones for his misdeeds and accepts his mortality (after failing twice to achieve immortality- unable to stay awake for 7 days, loss of prickly herb at the bottom of the sea) Hero given a great reward (Gilgamesh honored by people of Uruk) Hero given a great funeral and may become a god (Gilgamesh given a hunky-dory funeral and his memory will never die) Rationalism and Allegory THEAGENES (6TH CENTURY B. C. E) THEORIZED THAT BATTLES BETWEEN THE GODS REPRESENTED clashes between natural elements (e. g in the Lliad 20.54ff Apollo (representing fire) fights Poseidon (water)Cronus is identified with time ( Cronos)- all things are begotten by time and devoured by it as well, just like Cronuss children. Because of this false etymology, we still envision Father of time as the grim-reaper (with sickle) on account of Cronuss castration of his father Another false-etymological example stems of Hera sounding like the Latin word for air, Air lay just beneath the upper-atmosphere. Or aether ie. Jupiter/Zeus lays just about Juno/Hera. Historical Allegory Euhemerism myths reveals a historical truth (Euhermerus wrote of a golden column inscribe with the names with early human kings)The conflicts between Uranus, Cronus and Zeus were representative of palace intrigues During his reign Zeus traveled the earth teaching the arts of civilization, banning cannibalism, and open temples. Died on Crete after a long life Gods may have been kings and heroes of real men who founded cities and did great deeds. Moral Allegory The interpretation that a myth is a system of advice on good and bad behavior Eg. Daphine was an example of chastity and Harpies who steal mens food are really prostitutes who ruin men with their fees.When Paris gives his famous judgment, he is really choosing between 3 kinds of life active (Hera), contemplative (Athena), amorous (Aphrodite) which all men must choose. Perseus and the Myths of the Argive Plain Rich Bronze Age area Tiryns- Perseus was the king of Tiryns when he founded Mycenae Argos not important in the Bronze Age, but is often confused in the myth with the Mycenae which was The Wanderings of Io The River god Inachus and Melia- parents of Io Io ancestor of 3 great dynasties the houses of Argos, Crete & Thebes Zeuss passion and Heras jealousy (spots mysterious clouds)The cow, Hera took her and takes the cow puts a giant to watch her, so Zeus doesnt see her again Argus (Hundred Eyes) Hermes (Argeiphontes Killer of Argus) Ionian Sea, Byzantium- the Bosporus cow-missing, the Caucasus Mountains(Meets Prometheus things will get better), Egypt (Regains human form) Gives birth to Epaphus he who has been stirred Crimes of the Danaids Epaphus + Memphis (name of the ancient Egyptian capital, daughter of the Nilus the Nile River)= Libya (country west of the Nile river in North Africa) Libya + Poseidon are parents of Agenor (Ancestor to the houses of Crete and Thebes)(Arabia)Belus (ancestor of Perseus & Royal house of Argo, means lord in Semitic language)(Libya) Crimes of the Danaids Aegyptus has 50 sons genus Danaus has 50 daughters= the Danaids They flee to Argos to prevent proposed marriages (feared a takeover of Libya) The sons of Aegyptus eventually marry to Danaids. (Danaus gives all his daughters daggers to kill every husband) Only Hypermnestra spared her husband Lynceus- all but one motif All the daughters/Sisters were doomed on the underworld, they had to fill a jar that would never fill The Legends of Perseus Danae and the Shower of Gold Lynceus (the one sparred) in Argos after Danaus.His sons Abas has tally ( hate each other-quarreled in womb cf. Jacob & Esau and Isis, Osiris & Seth) Acrisius has a daughter, Danae but wants sons (Heirs) Oracles say that Danae will have a son, but that he will kill his grandfather (Acrisius) (Forbidden to Marry- prohibition) Acrisius builds underground bronze chamber to imprison Danae (folktake Seclusion) Zeus shower of gold impregnates her (Folktale motif violation of prohibition. Heroic motif extraordinary birth) Perseus and Danae set undirected in a wooden box (folktake motif threat of death) Dictys (netman) at Seriphos saves Danae and Perseus (folktale motif liberation).Dictys brother Polydectes (much-receiver, the king of Seriphos) demands Danaes hand in marriage Perseus tricked into going on a quest for the head of a Gorgon he had no horse as a wedding gift for Polydecates- Perseus boasts I will bring anything, else Polydecates wants, even a Gorgons head (Heroic motif hero falls under enemy power and is forces to complete impossible tasks) Perseus, the Gorgon Slayer Gorgons Stheno genus Euryale Medusa (The only mortal Gorgon) Instructions from Athena find the Graeae grey-haired women and learn whereabouts of helpful Nymphs (grabs eye, demands answers where are they).Perseus receives magical objects from the Nymphs Hades cap of invisibility, winged sandals special pouch. Hermes also provides a sword and a polished bronze shield (Heroic motif has the help of the gods, spirits, or magical objects) The killing of Medusa Uses shield as a mirror to avoid the gaze of the Gorgons, sneaks up on Medusa and cuts off her head From the body of Medusa, who was at the time pregnant by Poseidon Pegasus (Later tame by Bellerophon) Chrysaor Puts his head in pouch, flies off with winged sandals with the Stheno an d Euryale in pursuit (cant see him with the cap of invisibility).Perseus frees his mother by showing the Medusas head to Polydecates Perseus and Andromeda A variant has Perseus returning to Seriphos after a few adventures Came to Joppa (near Modern Tel Aviv) ruled by Cepheus Cepheuss daughter, Andromeda, is about to be sacrificed to a sea monster, because of a rash boast by her mother, Cassiopeia (more beautiful than the Nereids) Perseus given Andromedas hand in marriage and the kingdom for having freed her Phineus (Cepheuss brother) to whom Andromeda has been betrothed, bursts in a banquet in Honor of Perseus and is turned into stone with his men by the head of Medusa.Perseus rest in the East for a year and gives birth to Perses, ancestor to the Persian people. The Death of Acrisius Wanting to meet his grandfather Perseus returns to Argos Acrisius flees (it is fated that Perseus will kill him) At a sports contest in Thessaly, Perseus accidentally kills him with a stray discus (Mot if heroes can be a threat to civil society, even without meaning harm) shamed to receive the kingdom from his death grandfather, Perseus trades Argos for Tiryns with Megapenthes (cousin) Perseus also builds Mycenae (rules, begets dynasty) and lives there with Andromeda formany years.At their deaths, Athena placed them among the stars as constellations, remembered forever. Heracles Oct 8 Herakles Alexikakos (Wards off evil) Obscure origins- Argive plain? (Eurystheus) or Thebes? (Birth place). Belong to all Greeks Associated with an earlier time club, bow & arrows Excessive (Heroic) Shaman figure- Master of Animals provided food and protection to his people Heraclids (Dorians/Spartans) Perseuss granddaughter is Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon While Amphitryon (Hs stepdad) was off fighting pirates, Zeus disguised himself as Amphitryon.As Zeus leaves, the real Amphitryon appears In his way, Alcmena gave birth to a child of Zeus (Herakles) and of Amphitryon (Iphicles) HERA IS NOT HAPPY ( TRICKS ZEUS INTO SWEARING HIS 1ST OFFSPRING BORN THAT DAY WOULD RULE. Heras delay tactics- Eurystheus (Perseuss descendent, Heracles cousin) born before Herakles. accepted an aristocratic education (wrestling, archery, warfare, playing lyre Kills Linus for telling Herakles that he is bad at playing the lyre (poor linus) Herakles sent away to tend cows in the mountains cf. cattle of Geryon- Herakles as master of animals.Hunted a lion (Ravaging flocks) for king Thespius of Thespaie by day, stayed at his house by night (50 daughters-Heraclids, sons of Heracles, founded the noble family of the Spartans) Herakles marries Megara daughter of Creon (King of Thebes) and has 3 children Goes mad and kills his family (driven insane by Hera he believes that they are his enemies) Went to Delphi to learn what he must do to atone for his crime- must leave Thebes, go to Argive plain serve Eurystheus (Herakles cousin, king of Mycenae) 12 Labors Miasma is that his blood is tainted and his blood his contagious.( blood guilt) Must be purified by a God. 12 LABORS. 1ST LABOR, FACES A MONSTROUS LION SKIN THAT IS IMPENETRABLE. NEMEAN LION. Wrestles with the lion and kills him. Uses the lions claws to skin the lion. Wears the skin 2ND HERAKLE SLAYS THE HYDRA (OFFSPRING OF TYPHEOUS GAEA) SIMILAR SITUATION WHERE THEY thrash the older generation. Herakle has help from his nephew, kills the Hydra by having his nephew torch the heads of which he cuts off, so they do not grow back. Hydras blood is poisonous, arrows dipped in it.3RD HERAKLES AND ATHENA WAS TO CAPTURE THE GOLDEN HIND OF CERYNEIA WHO IS SCARED TOArtemis. By taking the stag when it was asleep. Told Artemis on the way back that he had to. 4TH TOLD TO bump THE GIRDLE OF HIPPOLYTA FROM THE AMAZONS. IT IS TO EXERT SEXUAL dominances. 5TH HERAKLES TOLD TO BRING THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR TO EURYSETHUS WHO HIDES IN PITHOS.(Eurysethus is scared and builds himself a jar to hide from) 6th Mares of Diomedes 4 man eat horses who were owned b y Diomedes. In the end he fed Diomedes to his mares because the mares kill his favored companion Abderus 7TH TRIPLE BODY GERYAN, THE CATTLES WHERE HE KILLED GERYAN AND HIS BROTHER WHO GUARDED the cattle.Eurytheus sacrificed the cattle to Hera. 8TH APPLES OF HESPERIDES (WEDDING GIVES TO HERA WHEN SHE MARRIED ZEUS) THESE APPLES ARE immortal. They are grown on the edge of the world. Atlas taunts Herakles with the Apples of the Hesperides. Herakles took the world on his shoulder. Atlas gets the apples, Herakles trick Atlas by telling Atlas to hold the world while Herakles adjust his neck. Atlas takes the world, and Herakle takes the apples from him. 9TH hellhound IS HADES HOUND OF HELL. HE MAKE SURE YOU NEVER LEAVE HELL. DRAGS BACK THE hounds of hell 10TH AUGEAN STABLES CLEANSES THE AUGEAN.IT IS A BIG STABLE, STABLE OF molar concentration DIVINE CATTLES that poop a lot. Re-routed a couple of rivers and flush the stables out. 11TH HERCULES WAS TO DRIVE AWAY AN ENORMOUS FLOCK OF BIRDS WH ICH GATHERED AT A LAKE NEAR the town of Stymphalos. Hercules had no idea how to drive the huge gathering of birds away.The goddess Athena came to his aid, providing a pair of bronze krotala, noisemaking clappers similar to castanets. These were no ordinary noisemakers. They had been made by an immortal craftsman, Hephaistos, the god of the forge. 12TH LABOR HERCULES EASILY DISPOSED OF THE CRETAN BULL. BRINGS THE BULL BACK TO EURYTHEUS.King Midas was to sacrifice whatever animal that the Poseidon sent. The god sent a bull so beautiful that he couldnt. Made the bull rampage all over Crete and made Midass wife fall in love with it, making the Minotaur. He put the Minotaur in the labyrinths, feeds him with the prisoners of Athens. After the Labors Wished to merry Lole, daughter of Eurytus, a local king. He refused remembering Megaras fate Eurytus discovers 12 prize mares missing, sends Son to question Herakles- son is killed (violate of Xenia) Herakles goes to Delphi to find out how to atone for crimes, Pythia refuses to respond.Herakle steals tripod runs off and boasts that he will establish his own oracle Apollo prescribe 3 years as a womans slave (Omphale the Lydian queen) Afterwards marries Deianaira man killer Tricked by the centaur Nessus told that his blood and semen would make potent love potion to use on Heracles. The blood is poisoned by the Hydra blood used to kill him Undergoes Apotheosis (became a god of Olympus) after his mortal self is killed by the poison Hercale marries Hebe (personification of youth) after ascending to Olympus Oct 10 Athens and Theseus.