Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Communication Challenges to Modern Day Business Essay Example for Free

Communication Challenges to Modern Day Business Essay Communication is defined as the process of transferring information and meaning between senders and receivers, using one or more written, oral, visual or electronic channels. Simply put, communication is the exchange of information between people. It is important to get feedback from your audience and vice versa for the process of communication to take place effectively. The feedback can be either positive or negative. It is any communication used in an organization with an intention to promote a product, improve service or with the intention to make a sale. This type of communication also occurs within the organization between the management and employees. It has purpose and a lot of attention is given to the details. Business communication has undergone a lot of transformation as a result of the growth of information technology that has changed the whole concept of communication. In the past, businesses had a model of communication that left very little room for interaction and conversation with the receiver of the message. Currently the model that works and is now used by most organisations is one that gives room to both conversation and interaction with the receivers. Communication is very vital in any organization. Like blood in our bodies, it is the channel that gives life to the organisation and without it, organisations would not be functional. Effective communication plays a significant role in the success of the business, as communication works to send information, control behavior and motivate workers. Today there are many more ways to communicate than there were just a few years ago and access to communication devices is almost universal in most businesses. Good communication means the intended message that is send is received by a group of audience without any distortions in meaning. This definition applies to not only personal communication among friends or relatives, but to business situations where you may be communicating with a co-worker one-on-one or in a meeting with several or more people. The key here is clarity Communication is also almost instantaneous. Good business communication is simple and easily understood, a rule often overlooked by managers and team members. This is especially important when preparing a document, speech or presentation that is a game-changer for the company. Simple and concise language wins over language that is obtuse and hard to understand. Business communication defines most organizations, resulting in effective marketing campaigns, productive interpersonal relationships among co-workers and successful customer service resolutions. Since audiences demand different kinds of communications in different situations and settings, effective business communication professionals understand how to tailor messages for maximum results. Several communication challenges exist within day-to-day business operations, especially with technology. Technology benefits organizational communication by lifting communication restrictions caused by time and distance. At the same time, the removal of time and distance as communication factors has led to the challenges of information overload and constant accessibility. The issue of constant accessibility has led to blurring of the lines between personal and professional lives. There are several barriers: Emotion serves as an obstacle to effective communication, as emotion can interfere with making rational decisions. Differences in culture can be a communication challenge for international businesses. Not understanding the language and customs of other cultures can lead to poor sales and public relation disasters. There are a number of recognised barriers in the modern day communication, many of which go unnoticed, that can and do effect the standards of communication a person feels comfortable with. Physical barriers are often down to the nature of the environment in which communication may take place but are not always interpreted by the recipient in the correct manor. For example an office door being closed could signify to a co-worker that someone does not want to be bothered, or is possibly in a bad mood, whereas the occupant of the office could have possibly closed the door due to a breeze or didnt close the door them self at all. This is an example of misinterpretation of actions brought about by the physical barrier of the door. Barriers like this can often present the risk of a ripple effect; in that the barrier in this situation could damage the recipients’ perception of the source by making the recipient feel outcast or shut out by the inhabitant of the office, which would set up the standings of a bad communicative relationship. Issues in communication can be disturbed when the basic mechanics of the communication method are damaged directly.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Cognitive Radio Essay -- Technology

A problem facing cognitive radio is the need for accurate estimations of performance metrics. Performance estimation algorithms are limited when facing new situations. For example, heuristics, such as genetic algorithms (GA), require specific knowledge about the interference conditions in order to adapt fitness functions. This paper presents an experimental design approach that analyzes performance results of a small set of configurations to create an empirical model. The method overcomes the need for specific knowledge of the channel or noise environment and is capable of addressing new situations.par This problem is difficult given the limitations inherent in any theoretical system model and the complexity of sensing the wireless environment. Existing GA-based cognitive engines identify radio configuration settings based on mathematical models for defining objective functions cite{Rondeau2007}. The methods rely on additional knowledge of noise conditions in order to customize the objective functions to the current environment. Advancements in the decision-making architecture tied case-based reasoning to the GA in order to increase time-to-decision and take advantage of past experiences cite{He2009}. However, CBR relies on the assumption that a past decision will work in the current situation if the two are similar enough. In both methods, the identified solution's true performance is unknown until after it is implemented on the system.par Theoretical models of wireless performance rely on assumptions in the channel conditions, and often do not represent the actual situation. In contrast, statistical methods base all conclusions from empirical evidence without requiring knowledge of the channel or interference conditions. T... ...rameters settings are then pared down by repeating the DOE with focus on another response meter. This process is repeated for each response meter available until a final parameter setting is identified. The authors developed a reconfiguration algorithm that draws its decision from multivariate DOE analysis on the system. The algorithm was implemented on an open-source software controller for off-the-shelf 802.11 wireless cards cite{Weingart2007}.par In contrast, we implement RSM experimental design that leads to quadratic models as opposed to linear. This approach increases accuracy and identifies overall better solutions. We implement the techniques on a software defined radio platform more indicative of deployable cognitive radio. Our focus emphasis the statistical fit performance of different designs and contrasts performance to a reference heuristic engine.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

American Colonies Essay

The journey to America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 marked a new path for explorers from all over the world. England was one of those countries to explore the Newfoundland and settled into colonial America. By the 1700’s, Britain’s settlers divided into three distinct cultures within America. The New England, Middle, and Southern colonies were formed because of their differences in religious beliefs, geographic aspects, and occupation types. The variety of religious view in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies helped evolve the differences between them. The New England colonies heavily practiced puritanism. Puritanism was a strict religion that’s main ideal was â€Å"everything you do affects all of us.† The puritans highly prioritized work ethic and were not afraid to publicly shun their members if the puritans disapproved of their actions. They believed their religion should be involved in all aspects of their life. The puritans strongly opposed the Quakers who, by the 1700’s, had settled into the Middle colonies. Quakers, also called the Religious Society of Friends, greatly differed to New England’s religious beliefs. The Quakers were a diverse group of people of deep conviction. They were advocates of passive resistance, but also devoted democratic people. The Quakers believed that they were all children in the sight of God. To the Puritans, the Bible supplied all religious authority, but Quakers believed that God could and did speak directly to the people. The Southern colonies largely supported the Church of England. The Church of England, whose members are called Anglicans, clung to a faith less severe and worldlier than the Puritanical New England. All three religions in all three different societies differed majorly in their beliefs. The Puritans strict ways clashed with the Quakers diverse and open views. The Church of England conflicted with the goal of the Puritans to purify the Church. The varied beliefs of the people divided them into the three colonies in early America. In addition, the distinct geography of each colony furthered the separation of their societies. The heavily glaciated soil in New England colony was filled with rocks. This rocky soil left New England less ethnically mixed. European immigrants were not attracted to the rocky soil of New England and decided to move elsewhere. Unlike the rocky soil of the New England  colonies, the Middle colonies became known as the â€Å"breadbasket† colonies because of the fertile soil and heavily exports of grain. Rivers also played a vital role in the difference of the Middle colonies from the others. The broad streams like the Susquehanna, Delaware and Hudson attracted fur trade and some adventurous spirits of the colonists. Unlike the New England’s many waterfalls, the Middle colonies waterways allowed little power with a water wheel. The Southern soil created a major difference to the rest of the colonies. The soil of the South was rich and fertile. Unlike New England’s hot summers and cruelly cold winters, the Southern heat was very humid and made the Southern colonies perfect for farming. The geographic differences between the colonies, including the variances of soil, rivers and weather, caused each colony to become more unique. As a result of the geographic aspects of the three colonies, specific occupations were found more often in certain colonies. The New England soil and climate created a diverse agriculture and industry. Unable to farm on rocks, some New England people turned to the harbors for fishing while others turned to dense forests, to work on cutting down trees and building ships. These jobs created a town-like atmosphere in the New England colony. The Middle colonies occupations proved very similar to the New England colonies. With the dense Virginal forest many became a lumberjacks or a ship builders. However, the Southern colonies fertile soil and humid weather created a farming franchise. Men had big farms called plantations. They grew crops to get cash and sold these crops to Great Britain. Because of the demanding work of owning a plantation, many slaves from Africa worked for the English farmers. The spread of slavery in the South created major gaps in their social structure. At the top of social ladder stood the small group of powerful plantation owners. Beneath them were small farmers, the biggest social group. Still lower on the social ladder were the landless whites, and beneath them were the indentured servants who were soon replaced with black slaves. The South created a separation between them and the other colonies because of their immigration of slaves. The variety of occupation types in each colony created majorly different societies. The major differences in each society helped evolve three distinct colonies. Each society had different beliefs and religions. The strict ways of the New England puritans clashed with the free spirit of the Quakers in the Middle colonies and the Anglican ways of the Southern colonies. The variety of soil, rivers, and weather helped create three distinct colonies. The rocky soil in the New England colonies, large rivers in the Middle colonies, and good soil and humid weather in the Southern colonies also helped create a vast assortment of occupations in each colony. With lumberjacks and ship builders in the New England and Middle colonies, and farming in the South, the jobs of the people in each society were majorly varied. The difference in each colony allowed groups of people to regulate their own lives. This later the creation of different states and governments, further separated the America. This separation in beliefs helped cause the civil war. The early difference in society in the 1700’s helped pave the way for many other conflicted views later on in America.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Cyber Warfare - 1994 Words

Cyber warfare One of the first cyber-attacks was the Morris worm in the year 1988. It had affected the world cyber infrastructure. This worm utilized the weak areas of UNIX system Noun1. This worm has replicated adversely and slowed down the computers in all of the US and made them unusable. Cyber warfare has become a societal issue now. Though the roots of cyber warfare aimed at military areas primarily, it extended its effects to non-military areas too. The information infrastructure based companies have become victimized due to abundant availability of cheap cyber weapons over internet. This resulted in economic instability. Libicki classified information warfare into seven categories. They are intelligence based warfare, economic†¦show more content†¦Duqu has the capacity to inject components into svchost.exe, iexplore.exe and firefox.exe. This malware is considered as a nonpublic exploit in windows kernel component. Both stuxnet and Duqu utilizes kernel mode root kit. Stuxnet is independent of any human while Duqu respond to command and mainly contributes to information theft. The capacity of information theft is mainly due to .key logging component. Another most popular malware is TDL3. The TDL3 root kit contains both Duqu and Stuxnet characteristics. TDL3 by passed antivirus software’s successfully It has successfully evaded the attack of anti-root kit software’s (Dezfoli et al., 2013). Flame is complicated software which was primarily built by utilizing object oriented code. It is advanced type of malware which can hack Skype calls, audio and can steal email. It ranges about 20MB in size. This malware has the capability to infect computers on local area network. It uses network level tricks. It impersonates automatic updates of windows provided by Microsoft. Gauss is another form of malware which utilized objects oriented code. It is one of the successful platforms which helped to steal large amount of information. 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