Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction Prostitution is recognized as one of the oldest professions in the world, and the practice of renting and hiring female bodies for certain monetary compensation has existed in human community for thousands of years.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social and Criminal Justice Responses to Sex Work specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regardless of the prolonged history of sex industry, it has been ignored until recently because of moral considerations. Blaming sex workers for their choice and regarding them inferior to other people, the community and legislators disregarded the instances of their assaults, not providing them with the necessary protection. The negative attitude of the community and the criminalization of sex works made workers of his industry vulnerable and susceptible for the physical assaults of men in the street, their customers and even policemen. Not answering the question whether a w oman offering sex services in the street deserves being assaulted directly, most people do not care much of destiny of street workers and prefer to ignore the existing problem. Rooted deep in the cultural beliefs on feminine victimization, social realities of disparity between the salaries of men and women and the legal framework criminalizing the sex industry or not giving it serious consideration, the problem of the increased vulnerability of street workers cannot be regulated through imposing certain policy measures only. Undergoing the influence of the normative ideas about appropriate gender roles, the social and criminal justice responses to sex work diminish the basic human and civil rights of street workers, exposing them to the increased risks of moral and physical assault. Discourse of feminine victimization The feminist scholars claim that the attribution of the sexualized meanings to the corporeality of women within the legal discourse is the main precondition for silenc ing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and establishing the philosophy of female victimization in the public consciousness. The tendencies of silencing the problems of women in general and sexual workers in particular are rooted in the social and legal domains.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Smart (1990) noted that the legislative acts operate only partial and incorrect data on female reality and patriarchal relations, inadequately treating womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences (p. 200). The legislative discourse reflects the one-sided interests of men, ignoring the real state of affairs in the community. For instance, the family law treats married women as menÃ¢â¬â¢s dependents though in fact they return to the labor market and contribute to the family budget. As it was cited in Binion (2002), Cornell (1998) noted that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s legal identity is bound up with the social perspectives on t heir traditional roles of wives and mothers due to the community patriarchy (p. 174). In the context of phallocentric culture structured for complying with the needs of masculine imperative, the discrimination and inequality are the concepts becoming parts of not only superficial systems, including those of imposed by social and legal institutions, but also parts of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s unconscious and their gendered identity of victimization (Smart 1990, p. 202). Along with feminist approach, the problem of silencing the problem of violence towards the street workers requires adopting a humanist approach for considering the main preconditions for the occurrence of the problem and the tendency to ignore it. As it was cited in Quillen (2001), Nussbaum as the proponent of humanist feminism argued that the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity should be protected on the basis of equality of women as human beings without overemphasizing the gender-based differences (p. 92). There is evidence that prosti tution as one of the oldest professions has existed for at least 6 000 years since the human society was divided into different social classes and the patriarchal relations were established (Brown 2009). The existing legislative discourse and practices within which the cases of violence towards the street prostitutes are silenced and ignored are rooted in the patriarchal relations and social misconceptions concerning the sexual identity of a woman and the profession of a prostitute.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social and Criminal Justice Responses to Sex Work specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The instances of violence towards street workers Emphasizing the rising levels of street violence, the Australian media tends to silence the instances of violence towards the street prostitutes, not recognizing the rights of these women for the equal rights and safe working conditions due to their profession and social s tatus. The street prostitutes are one of the most disadvantaged social groups susceptible to victimization due to their social marginality and relative invisibility (Grattet Jenness 2001, p. 697). The main reasons for this vulnerability can be found not only in the consciousness of the criminals counting on the low degree to which the society and the criminal justice system care of what happens to a prostitute, but also in the legislative framework which allows considering a victim as unworthy of law enforcement. The accurate statistics of the instances of violence towards street workers is missing because women are frequently afraid of approaching the police because of the possible fines and the reasonable lack of belief into the police protection. Middendorp (2010) noted that in St Kilda which is recognized as the centre of the street sex work in Melbourne hardly a day can pass without a prostitute being robbed or seriously assaulted. Being the most visible manifestation of the p rostitution in the country, the street prostitutes count for not more than 2% of the industry but undergo additional risks due to their hazardous environment (Middendorp 2010). Most women working in the street are physically and/or socially disadvantaged because they are frequently homeless and suffering from mental illnesses, drug and alcohol addiction (Caiazza 2005, p. 1610; Cornell 1998, p. 46).Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the sex workers are frequently abused by their dysfunctional customers, and this circumstance further complicates the issue. There is also evidence that even policemen can handle women suspected of prostitution inappropriately (Brown Heidensohn 2000, p. 51). In general, the established patriarchal relations and the culture of feminine victimization preconditioned the dynamics of sex industry. As a rule, women rent their bodies for earning their living because due to their personal circumstances they cannot find another way for surviving. However, it is always demand that determines supply, and these are men accustomed to patriarchal relations, disrespecting women in general and prostitutes in the first place which makes them treat female bodies as commodities and hire them for satisfying their sexual needs. The debates of the ethical considerations of prostitution and its negative implications for the public morality resulted in criminalizing it and making the sex workers vulnerable and susceptible to assaults. Analyzing the cases of violence towards street workers which remain ignored, it can be stated that these are the public contempt and the criminal justice framework criminalizing their activities which undergo the influence of the normative ideas about appropriate gendered behavior of women and do not allow street prostitutes to speak out being assaulted and protect their rights. Facing the inevitable Taking into account the fact that the practices of criminalizing prostitution did not decrease the activities, but caused the violation of the basic human and civil rights of the street workers, it can be stated that disregard of the problem does not allow solving it. The rights of sex workers need to be protected like the rights of the workers of other industries. The assumption that street prostitution can be eliminated through appropriate policing is only a myth because the legal restrictions are unable to prevent the individuals from wanting to purchase sexual services (Middendorp 2010). Existing for at least 6000 years, prostitution can be possible only under the conditions of treating female bodies as commodities and general disparity between the incomes of men and women (Brown 2009). Thus, the gender-based ideology of feminine victimization and disrespect of female body are established deep in the public consciousness even though ignored due to ethical considerations, but cannot be solved through enforcing certain legal acts. Until recently, the conceptualization of sex industry was inevitably linked to raping, limiting the prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ opportunities for receiving the same protection in case of sexual assault as other women receive because it was hard to persuade the jury that a prostitute can be raped. Further complicating the issue, not only actual involvement into the sexual industry, but also prior history and even victimÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation could be taken into consideration by the jury. The situation chan ged only after the rape law reform taking place in late nineties when the admissibility of evidence exploring the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual reputation in the course of the proceedings was limited (Sullivan 2007, p. 132). Additional factors contributing to the changes in the existing legislative framework include the rise of the feminist activism and the shifts in the public attitudes towards rape and prostitution. A clear understanding of the dynamics of industry and the main underlying causes of the problem were necessary for making the first steps in transforming the existing legislative framework from victimization towards criminal defense (Westervelt 1998, p. 2). The phenomenon of sexual services in general and the street workers in particular should not be regarded as the consequence of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual liberation, but should rather be treated as one of professions, and the civic and labor rights of its representatives need to be observed as well as the rights of people w orking in other spheres. Social response to violence towards street workers in Australia As to the legislative system of Australia, the problem of criminalization of sex work is solved differently in different states. Prostitution is regarded as illegal activity in SA, Western Australia and Tasmania, but is legalized in NSW. There are certain licensing programs regulating sex work in Queensland, Victoria and ACT (Kelton Swallow 2011). The activities of public organizations play an important role in changing the Australian legislative acts and practices concerning the protection of street workers from violence and assaults. For example, in May 2011 about 50 people organized a rally near the Parliament House at South Australia, demanding the decriminalization of all types of sex work and services in South Australia (Kelton Swallow 2011). Considering the sex services as illegal, the legislative bodies diminish the rights of sex workers significantly. Claiming that the current legisla tion on sex services bound by acts from 1930s to 1950s is outdated, Ari Reid, the manager of the Sex Industry Network admitted that the current legislation has to be reformed and Labor MP Stephanie Key was intended to introduce a bill into the Parliament for decriminalizing sex industry in SA (Kelton Swallow 2011). The main features to be considered in the enforcement of the bill include ensuring the equal rights and responsibilities for sex workers and separating brothels and centers of street workers from schools and places of worship (Kelton 2011). Criminal justice response to violence towards street workers in Australia As to Victoria, where the licensing programs are intended to control sex industry, the regulation is performed in accordance with legislative acts and laws. Victorian legislation contains the following legal documents aimed at regulating sex workersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour, Sex Work Act 1994, Sex Work Regulations 2006, Sex Work (Fees) Regulations 2004, and Public Heal th and Wellbeing Act 2008. The main idea of these documents is to make the prostitution legal and safe profession. Sex Work Act (1994) is created with the purpose to control sex work in Victoria. The latest amendments were inserted on January 1, 2011. Sex Work Regulations document (2006), with amendments incorporated on December 1, 2010, is aimed at listing transmitted diseases and requirements imposed on those who work in the sex industry, implementing Ã¢â¬Å"safety matters relevant to the suitability of licence applicantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"controls on the advertising by sex work service providersÃ¢â¬ , and informing about Ã¢â¬Å"participants to be given to the Authority by small owner-operated businessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the form of registrarÃ¢â¬â¢s certificatesÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). Sex Work (Fees) Regulations (2004) are aimed at prescribing fees which are to be paid in accordance with the central document, Sex Work Act (1994). Finally, the main purpose of Public Health and Wellbeing Act (2008) is to make sure that the citizens of Victoria are aware of the health issues which may cause great problems in the future. These legislative acts are aimed at helping people perceive the profession of sex workers and do not create them additional problems. The understanding from the side of the society may help reduce the rate of violent acts and prejudiced attitude in the relation to prostitutes. People should know that this profession is protected with the law. Analyzing the legal implications of the above-discussed acts, it can be stated that regardless of certain progress in regulating the sex industry which is made in Victoria as compared to other states where sex services are criminalized, there are certain inconsistencies in current regulations and further improvements are required for handling the existing problem of high rates of violence towards street workers. Conclusion The problem of the rising level of violence towards street sex workers has been silenced fo r a long period of time due to the legal framework criminalizing sex industry. Undergoing the influence of the normative ideas about appropriate gendered behaviour, the social and criminal justice responses to street workers were negative. The reputation or even suspicions of involvement into the sex industry could be regarded as evidence influencing the decision of the jury. The rise of the feminist movement and the public activity of sex workers struggling for their labour and civil rights have fostered the shifts in public consciousness and attitudes towards sex industry. The licensing programs controlling sex industry in Victoria can be regarded as a significant step forward on the way of decriminalizing the industry. However, particular inconsistencies which can still be found in the current legislative acts require further improvements of the legislative framework. Reference List Binion, G 2002, Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Theory Ã¢â¬â At the Heart of Freedom: Feminism, Sex and Equali tyÃ¢â¬â¢ The American Political Science Review, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 174. Brown, J Heidensohn, F 2000, Gender and policing: comparative perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Prahran. Brown, V 2009, Ã¢â¬ËProstitution from the female viewpoint?Ã¢â¬â¢, Direct Action, iss. 10, http://directaction.org.au/issue10/prostitution_from_the_female_viewpoint Caiazza, A 2005, Ã¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢t bowl at night: gender, safety, and civic participationÃ¢â¬â¢, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1607-1631. Cornell, D 1998, At the heart of freedom: feminism, sex, and equality, Princeton University Press, Princeton. Grattet, R Jeness, V 2001, Ã¢â¬ËExamining the boundaries of hate crime law: disabilities and the dilemma of differencesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 653-698. Kelton, G Swallow, J 2011, Ã¢â¬ËMP Steph Key pushes to decriminalise prostitution in SAÃ¢â¬â¢, Advertiser, 2 June, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ipad/ mp-steph-key-pushes-to-decriminalise-prostitution-in-sa/story-fn6bqpju-1226067458942 Kelton, G 2011, Ã¢â¬ËLetÃ¢â¬â¢s give our sex workers modern rightsÃ¢â¬â¢, Advertiser, 1 June, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/mp-steph-key-pushes-to-decriminalise-prostitution-in-sa/story-e6frea6u-1226067513913 Middendorp, C 2010, Ã¢â¬ËIs it OK to bash women if they are selling sex?Ã¢â¬â¢, Age, 16 March, http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/society-and-culture/is-it-ok-to-bash-women-if-they-are-selling-sex-20100315-q9le.html Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, no. 46, http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/PubStatbook.nsf/f932b66241ecf1b7ca256e92000e23be/8B1B293B576FE6B1CA2574B8001FDEB7/$FILE/08-46a.pdf Quillen, C 2001, Ã¢â¬ËFeminist theory, justice, and the lure of the humanÃ¢â¬â¢, Signs, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 87-122. Sex Work (Fees) Regulations 2004, version no. 003, S.R. no. 129, http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/LTObject_Store/LTObjSt5.nsf/d1a8d8a9b ed958efca25761600042ef5/19cc1369faeaf8acca2577d500172fd3/$FILE/04-129sr003.pdf Sex Work Act 1994, version no. 070, no. 102, http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/LTObject_Store/LTObjSt5.nsf/d1a8d8a9bed958efca25761600042ef5/4be4627049efa4d8ca25780a000faddf/$FILE/94-102A070bookmarked.pdf Sex Work Regulations 2006, version no. 010, S.R. no. 64, http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/LTObject_Store/LTObjSt5.nsf/DDE300B846EED9C7CA257616000A3571/E62748D19CA33839CA2577EC00718182/$FILE/06-64sr010.pdf Smart, C 1990, Ã¢â¬ËLawÃ¢â¬â¢s Power, the Sexed Body, and Feminist DiscourseÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Law and Society, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 194-210. Sullivan, B 2007, Ã¢â¬ËRape, Prostitution and ConsentÃ¢â¬â¢, Australian New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 127-142. Westervelt, SD 1998, Shifting the blame: how victimization became a criminal defense, Rutgers University Press, Piscataway. This essay on Social and Criminal Justice Responses to Sex Work was written and submitted by user Santiago Franks to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Editing - Definition and Guidelines Editing is a stage of the writing process in which a writer or editor strives to improve a draft (and sometimes prepare it for publication) by correcting errors and by making words and sentences clearer, more precise, and more effective. The process ofÃ editing involves adding, deleting, and rearranging words along with recasting sentences andÃ cutting the clutter. Tightening our writing and mending faults can turn out to be a remarkably creative activity, leading us to clarify ideas, fashion fresh images, and even radically rethink the way we approach a topic. Put another way, thoughtful editing can inspire furtherÃ revisionÃ of our work. EtymologyFrom the French, to publish, editÃ Observations Two Types of EditingThere are two types of editing: the ongoing edit and the draft edit. Most of us edit as we write and write as we edit, and its impossible to slice cleanly between the two. Youre writing, you change a word in a sentence, write three sentences more, then back up a clause to change that semicolon to a dash; or you edit a sentence and a new idea suddenly spins out from a word change, so you write a new paragraph where until that moment nothing else was needed. That is the ongoing edit. . . .For the draft edit, you stop writing, gather a number of pages together, read them, make notes on what works and doesnt, then rewrite. It is only in the draft edit that you gain a sense of the whole and view your work as a detached professional. It is the draft edit that makes us uneasy, and that arguably matters most.(Susan Bell, The Artful Edit: On the Practice of Editing Yourself. W.W. Norton, 2007)Editing CheckpointsThe final step for the writer is to go back and clean up the r ough edges. . . . Here are some checkpoints:Facts: Make sure that what youve written is what happened;Spelling: Check and recheck names, titles, words with unusual spellings, your most frequently misspelled words, and everything else. Use a spell check but keep training your eye;Numbers: Recheck the digits, especially phone numbers. Check other numbers, make sure all math is correct, give thought to whether numbers (crowd estimates, salaries, etc.) seem logical;Grammar: Subjects and verbs must agree; pronouns need correct antecedents; modifiers must not dangle; make your English teacher proud;Style: When it comes to repairing your story, leave the copy desk feeling like the washing machine repair guy who has nothing to do.(F. Davis, The Effective Editor. Poynter, 2000) Editing in ClassA large portion of everyday editing instruction can take place in the first few minutes of class . . .. Starting every class period with invitations to notice, combine, imitate, or celebrate is an easy way to make sure editing and writing are done every day. I want to communicate with my instruction that editing is shaping and creating writing as much as it is something that refines and polishes it. . . . I want to step away from all the energy spent on separating editing from the writing process, shoved off at the end of it all or forgotten about altogether.(Jeff Anderson, Everyday Editing. Stenhouse, 2007)Tinkering: The Essence of Writing WellRewriting is the essence of writing well: its where the game is won or lost. . . . Most writers dont initially say what they want to say, or say it as well as they could. The newly hatched sentence almost always has something wrong with it. Its not clear. Its not logical. Its verbose. Its klunky. Its pretentious. Its boring. It s full of clutter. Its full of cliches. It lacks rhythm. It can be read in several different ways. It doesnt lead out of the previous sentence. It doesnt . . . The point is that clear writing is the result of a lot of tinkering.(William Zinsser, On Writing Well. Harper, 2006) The Slap-and-Pat Theory of EditingWhat I try to practice is what I call the slap-and-pat theory of editing. Almost everything thats written needs some criticism. Almost everything thats written needs some praise, or deserves some praise. So you try to mix praise with criticism. Ideally, you do it sincerely. That is, you dont praise what you really dont like; but you praise what you really do like. You dont write 12 pages of things that are wrong, without remembering to find something else you like, that is already right.(Editor Samuel S. Vaughan, in an interview with the online journal Archipelago)The Lighter Side of EditingI hate cross-outs. If Im writing and I accidentally begin a word with the wrong letter, I actually use a word that does begin with that letter so I dont have to cross out. Hence the famous closing, Dye-dye for now. A lot of my letters make no sense, but they are often very neat.(Paula Poundstone, Theres Nothing in This Book That I Meant to Say. Three Rivers Press, 2006) Pronunciation: ED-et-ing
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Stradegies (or Barriers) - Term Paper Example Evidence of institutions structured racially were slavery, segregations, residential schools and Indian wars. In 20th century though, discriminations of all kinds were banned following activities of civil rights groups from all quarters who opposed these discriminations using various strategies, its fundamental to note that some like employment, housing, education and lending prejudices still happen in the present society. In this paper however, focus is on the Asian and African Americans as two of the groups that faced barriers (discrimination) in United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ history and what strategies they used to overcome these challenges. In the first part of this paper we shall look at the African Americans and then proceed to second part of Asian Americans in order to create contrast in the strategies they deployed in fighting for their freedom. Perhaps the most prominent barrier of this group is the institution of slavery in which the African Americans were enslaved and viewed as property and treated as second class citizens, stigmatized and denied industrial jobs. It the perception of slavery that resulted in all the barriers faced by the Africans in America, it started in 1630s in prehistoric era and has been practiced for a long period of time due to sugar, tobacco and other plantations that seek more workforces. There are several issues that kept them invisible in all aspects of their lives: Their lives were incredibly difficult as slaves mostly for those who worked in the plantations, they could work from sunrise to sunset without exception of the old or the young all could work for this long period of time. It was considered to be lucky if the master gives the slave a day off from work or holidays like Christmas which was infrequent. In his free lucky time, the slave engage in his own activities of fishing or cultivating small piece of land in order to supplement what is given by the master that was poor in quality. As stated earlier it was
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Business concepts 2 - Coursework Example The first role is the provision of technological supervision in the corporation, which does not only entail the supervision of the other IT specialists but also the information systems and the communications networks. The CIO also oversees the development and execution of an excellent customer service platform relative to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s practices. He/she also liaises with management teams and organizational leaders on any IT-related alterations, advances or probable approaches to enhance communication. Additionally, still under communication, the CIO maintains the corporate network infrastructure for utter connectivity and remote access. Other roles of the CIO entail participation in vendor contract negotiations, assessing and anticipating technology projects, and establishing and directing strategic and tactical objectives, initiatives and practices in the IT department. Finally, the top-level management also requires the CIO to flourish in the identification of user need s and resolution of problems. The core roles of the Information Department, relative to the name, entail dealing with most, if not all, of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information. The first significant role entails planning, where members in the department work with the Chief Information Officer in developing an IT approach supporting the corporate culture and objectives (Linton, 2015). The planning role of the department helps in building a resilient advantage over the rest of the competitors, which they achieve through customization of software and computer systems significant in meeting needs of other organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s departments. Networking is also among the roles of the department as it is the backbone of efficient communication and collaboration between departments. The IT departments operations mostly relate to the organization networks and ways of making it more efficient. As modules of the network system, the IT department, through the different teams, engages in
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Internet and marketing strategy - Essay Example (Definition) It is also "referred to as online marketing or Emarketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. The Internet has brought many unique benefits to marketing including low costs in distributing information and media to a global audience. The interactive nature of Internet marketing, both in terms of instant response, and in eliciting response, are unique qualities of the medium. Internet marketing ties together creative and technical aspects of the internet, including design, development, advertising and sales. Internet marketing methods include search engine marketing, display advertising, e-mail marketing, affiliate marketing, interactive advertising, blog marketing, and viral marketing. Internet marketing is the process of growing and promoting an organization using online media. Internet marketing does not simply mean 'building a website' or 'promoting a website'. Somewhere behind that website is a real organization with real goals. Meanwhile, at this juncture, there is need to focus on Internet Marketing Business Model. But however, what is Business Model in particular. "A Business Model Draws on a Multitude Business Subjects, including economic, entrepreneurship, finance, marketing, operation and strategy. The Business Model itself is important determinant of profits to be made from innovation (Role of the Business Model) Additionally, there are six components of Business Model, these are; Value preposition, Market Segment, Value Chain Structure, Revenue Generation and Margins, Position in Value and lastly Competitive Strategy. MARKETING STRATEGY It is well known fact that "An Internet Marketing Strategy is fast becoming an integral part of marketing and PR manager's 'hat.' Blogs, online press releases, media rooms, SEM, interactive elements, and rich media are aspects of the job every marketing and PR professional must get their wits around. An effective Internet Marketing Strategy is vital your business success today. What people see when they do a search does influence their perception of your company. It also affects your brand value.And now that the search engines have changed the way they display results with theintegration of news, blogs, and feeds and video into the web search results pages, there aremore PR opportunities in search than ever before". (On line PR Lessons of 2007) However, there are 10 most known Internet Marketing Strategy that should be adapted in order to make the E-Business effectively and successful indeed. They are as follows: 1. The E-marketing planning process: "The integration of e-marketing-specific objectives, strategies and activities into the traditional annual marketing planning process". (Top 10 Strategic E-Marketing Issue) 2. Organizing and resourcing for e-marketing: "As the importance of online channels increase, the structure of the marketing organization and responsibilities may need to change to maximize the opportunities available through new media". (Top 10 Strategic E-Marketing Issues) 3. Defining the Online value proposition (OVP :): "To achieve
Friday, November 15, 2019
Image And Impression Management This sections aims to uncover and analyze past researches that had been done by other researchers on related topics of image and impression management. This chapter, will provide the theoretical foundation for this research. First, the historical background of impression management will be discussed. Second, the definition and scope of impression management will be examined. Review should contain critical evaluation and discussion of other related research. Image management A growing body of research indicates that we engage in image management in various social situations. Most research has focused on image management in face-to-face situations, particularly as it pertains to career success and performance appraisal. Previous studies have focused on how personality traits and certain situational factors affect image management (Boline Turley, 2002, p. 141). Image management can be defined as: a process by which individuals present information about themselves to appear as they wish others to see them (Kacmar et al., 2007, p. 16). Erving Goffman, who studied human interaction, first introduced the idea of impression management. Goffman described the social world as deceptive. In The Presentation of Self and Everyday Life (1959), Goffman describes human social interaction as a theatrical performance, meaning that people act as performers to give off certain impressions in certain social situations (Manning, 2009 p. 8). Therefore, we intentionally mislead people in efforts to give off a certain impression that we feel will benefit us within a specific social situation. Goffman uses the term fabrication to describe the way an individual misleads others (Manning, 2009, p. 9). Through fabrications, we frame ourselves to be who we want to be. Image management is also defined as the process by which people attempt to influence the images that others have of them (Rosenfeld, Giacalone Riordan, 1995). Regardless of the specific context in which it is used, the general goal of image management is to create a particular impression in others minds (Leary Kowalski, 1990; Rosenfeld et al., 1995). According to several theorists (Schlenker, 1980; McFarland, 2005) image management can be both conscious and unconscious. As Leary and Kowalski (1990) acknowledge as well, at one extreme people are unaware of others reactions to them, while on the other extreme people are conscious about the aspects of themselves that others can observe, such as their appearance and behaviour. Since image management behaviour can be learned, habitually and unconsciously, humans engage in impression management behaviour without considering what they are actually doing. With reference to Jones and Pittman (1982), people should be cautious in using image management tactics since one carries the risk that it will be perceived negatively; for every desired image, there is a corresponding undesired image at risk. For instance, an individual using self-promotion would like to be seen as competent, though he risks to be perceived as arrogant instead. In addition, image management research has mostly concentrate on purposive behaviour like verbal, non-verbal, and artificial behaviours that influence the images that other people have of the person. (Schneider, 1981). However, people often exercise image management behaviour without considering their own behaviour. In such instances, image management tactics become over learned habits. As Schlenker (1980) concludes, a great deal of image management behaviour appears to be non-purposive since it occurs automatically without conscious thought or control. Regarding purposive behaviours, Jones and Pittman (1980) have identified ingratiation, self-promotion, intimidation, exemplification, and supplication as image management. In todays world it is very important to understand who is playing which role, how one should act, and why other people are doing what they are doing. We project our image in very different manners: what we do, how we do it, what we say, how we say it, the arrangement of our offices, and our physical appearance, such as clothes and make-up as well as facial expressions. All these behaviors in some way help us define who we are (Rosenfeld et al., 1995, p.4). They form an identity and express what we want and expect from other people around us. These social identities constitute how individuals are defined and regarded in social interaction (Schlenker, 1980, p.69). The general definition used by scholars is that image management is the process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions other people form of them (Gardner, 1992). Individuals manage their impressions when they wish to present a favorable image of themselves to others (Jones Pittman, 1982). Ways in which individuals manage their impressions can vary from verbal statements to their physical appearance or by using non-verbal gestures and expressions. Some theorists like Schlenker (1980) and Schneider (1981) make a distinction between the terms image management and self-presentation, even though most literature uses these terms interchangeably. Schlenker (1980) classifies image management as the attempt to control images that are projected in real or imagined social interactions while self-presentation is applied to situations in which the created impression is self-relevant (Schlenker, 1980, p.6). Schneider (1981) claims that self-presentation can be seen as a close cousin of image management, but still is dissimilar: Image can be managed by means other than self-presentation, and presentations may be used for goals other than image management (Schneider, 1981, p.25). Schneider (1981) mentions that image of an individual can also be controlled by a third party. Several theorists propose that self-presentation not only attempts to influence the images that others form, but also has an influence on the impression the person has about himself (Greenwald Breckler, 1985; Hogan, Jones Cheek, 1985; Schlenker, 1985). This in fact can be regarded as self-presentation to the self (Leary et al., 1990), as people are motivated to preserve particular beliefs about themselves (Greenwald Breckler, 1985). Overall, image management can be seen as a broader and more encompassing term than self-presentation (Leary et al., 1990). Impression Management Goffmans impression management work has developed and continuous to be a popular research topic addressing studies of identity and social interaction. Many impression management studies use the theory of self-monitoring to measure how anindividual works to achieve a desirable self-image. Self-monitoring can be described as an internal state combining self-observation and self-control (Scher et al., 2007, p. 186). Self-monitoring is an internal process in which a person tries to control the impressions they give off to others as a means of self-presentation (Scher et al., 2007, p. 187). In trying to give off certain impressions of ones self, a person controls their behaviors to ensure that they are socially appropriate. Lennox (1984) describes two sources of information that a person uses to assess how to act: ones personal disposition and situational cues (p. 199). Some people, known as low self-monitors, rely more on their inner states and feelings in assessing the appropriateness o f their behavior while others, known as high self-monitors, tend to respond to their social environments cues when deciding how to behave appropriately (Lennox, 1984, p. 199). High self-monitors adapt their behaviors to specific social situations. They look at the way others are behaving in the immediate social scene for cues on how they should behave. On the contrary, low self-monitors use their internal factors their attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and dispositions as cues on how they should behave in certain situations. Therefore, they are less affected by situational factors than high self-monitors. Their behaviors are more reflective of their personality (Lennox, 1984, p. 199). Studies have shown that high self-monitors are more likely to conform than low self-monitors and show more inconsistency between their behaviors and attitudes (Scher et al., 2007, p. 187). It is thought that high self-monitors are more concerned with what others think of them than low self-monitors, maki ng them more likely to conform in social situations (Sher et al., 2007, p. 190). Studies show that high self-monitors are more concerned with what others think and are more likely than low self-monitors to achieve desired images while avoiding undesired ones (Turnley Bolino, 2001, p. 251). They are skillful in controlling their self-image and often use impression management tactics. Jones and Pittman (1982) came up with a list of impression management tactics (Turnley Bolino, 2001, p. 352). These includes: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Ingratiation using flattery in efforts to get others to view you favorably Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Self Promotion displaying your successes and skills in efforts to appear competent Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Exemplification striving to be seen as dedicated by exerting yourself to the fullest Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Supplication displaying your needs and shortcoming in efforts to appear needy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Intimidation striving to be seen as threatening or dangerous by intimidating others Turnley and Bolinos study (2001) found that high self-monitors would more frequently achieve the desired image of likeable when using ingratiation, competent when using self promotion and dedicated when using exemplification than low self-monitors (Turnley Bolino, p. 353). A similar study done by Bolino Turnley (2003) found evidence that high self-monitors prefer to use positive impression management tactics (ingratiation, self promotion and exemplification) to negative tactics (supplication and intimidation) (p. 141). This same study also suggests that individuals who engage in positive impression management tactics are seen by others as more favorable than those who use all types of impression management tactics (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 141). This study asserts that women are less aggressive in using impression management tactics than men and therefore, are more likely to engage in positive tactics rather than negative ones (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 141). Bolino Turnley suggest that this may be because women follow the less aggressive tactics of the female gender role, which discourages aggressive or assertive behavior (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 148). Therefore, men are more active and aggressive in managing their impressions while women are mor e likely to do so passively (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 148). Siibaks study used the self-discrepancy theory to explain the reasons behind managing ones social media image. This theory asserts that individuals have three self-domains: The Actual Self an individuals representation of the attributes that he or she believes he/she possesses The Ideal Self an individuals representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another person) wants you to possess The Ought Self and individuals representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another person) believes you should possess (Higgins, 1987, p. 319) The Ought Self comes into play in impression management. Individuals seek to represent the Ought Self by emphasizing the attributes they believe a person ought to possess in a certain social situation. Many studies have focused on the Cultivation Theory as it pertains to self-image and distorted body image problems. Most of these studies look at television and magazines and their role in making females believe ideal beauty means excessive thinness. This study is more focused on exploring whether image management affects womens perceptions of ideal beauty. A study done on college women using print advertisements found that making social comparisons to ultra-thin models is significantly associated with greater internalization of the thin ideal and decreased satisfaction with ones own appearance (Engeln Maddox, 2005, p. 1114). This study uses a sociocultural model that describes body image problems and disordered eating as a result of the continued exposure to thin images. This prolonged exposure reinforces the Western ideal of thinness being attractive (Engeln-Maddox, 2005, p. 1115). A similar study was done on the effects of fashion magazines on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among females. This study also connects the medias promotion of the thin ideal to body distortion issues that remain at the center of anorexia and bulimia (Shaw, 1995, p. 15). It compared adolescents and adults and their responses to thin images present in magazines (Shaw, 1995, p. 20). Age, BMI and greater bulimic tendencies were positively correlated with greater responsiveness to images of thin models among adolescents (Shaw, 1995, p. 20). The adults, although still responsive to the thin ideal, were less responsive than adolescents (Shaw, 1995, p. 21). This is thought to be in part because adults, unlike adolescents, are not in a developmental stage in which they are concerned with collecting personal identity information (Shaw, 1995, p. 21). Shaw (2005) uses Social Identity Theory, which states that ones social identity is positively related to the degree of social attractiveness conferred by their membership of a particular social group to describe why females have greater body dissatisfaction after being exposed to ultra-thin magazine models (p. 21). Shaw also explains that our culture provides cues that teach females at an early age that they are judged by their physical beauty (p. 21). Therefore, females work to conform to the ideal images of beauty that our society has spelled out for them. If they are not able to conform to this ideal image of beauty, they may experience body dissatisfaction, which may lead to disordered eating habits. One study looked at the role of the peer environment and its ability to provide a subculture that emphasizes the importance of thinness throughÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ peer pressure to diet and be thin and teasing from peers about weight and shape (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 313). Female adolescents believe being thin is connected to a better popularity standing among friends and increases the perception of being dateable (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 314). This is linked to disordered dieting, poor self-image evaluations, and bulimia (Gerner Wilson, 2005, pg. 314). This study also suggests girls friendships with males, more than females, are closely tied to how they feel about their bodies, reflecting a sociocultural emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness for successful relationships with males (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 318). 2.2.1 Historical review on Impression management A distinction will be made between before and after the 1980s. The idea that people actively manage their image that others form of them has existed for centuries, but it was in the early 1900s that social philosophers incorporated these ideas into their thinking. It was only during the 1980s that the topic of image management started to become widely accepted as an element of organizational life and communications. 2.2.1 Impression management before the 1980s The concept of image and impression management relates back to prehistoric and primitive people who also were concerned about self-presentation. Cosmetics, clothing, jewelry and other aids to physical attractiveness were universally used to present positive identities to others (Tedeschi, 1981, p.xv). The idea that people project identities to one another and form identities from the reactions of others to them, has existed for a long period of time, yet it has not been until this century that social philosophers have incorporated this interactive process into their thinking (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934) 2.2.2 Impression management after the 1980s Prior to the 1980s generally social psychologists regarded impression management as a peripheral concept. It was rarely regarded as a fundamental interpersonal process on its own (Schlenker Weigold, 1992, p.135) . In the second half of the 1980s interest for impression management started to increase and the concept of impression management became more important. In 1989 two books were published by Giacalone and Rosenfeld about impression management in organizations. These two books served as source books for what is nowadays the distinctive field of organizational impression management (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Impression management in organizations consists of strategic communications designed to establish, maintain, or protect desired identities (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Since the 1980s impression management has been studied in organizational contexts such as leader-member exchange, job interviews and performance appraisal. The study of impression management in organizations is of great importance (Bozeman Kacmar, 1997, p.9). As popularity among researchers and practitioners grew it also started to be viewed as a mainstream rather than a peripheral concept. It is difficult to understand how impression management could have been overlooked in many theoretical discussions. Incorporating impression management into current research and practice is started to provide a better understanding of how organizational processes were to a large extent affected by individuals concerns over how they were being perceived by others (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Most social psychological investigations have focused on intentional behaviors that decorate or modify ongoing behavior. Impression management is assumed to become more intentional and focused when people believe that they will gain valued outcomes by encouraging certain impressions in others (Schlenker Weigold, 1992). Since the 80s analysts have applied and studied the concept of impression management to a wide range of social phenomena, such as attitude change, nonverbal behavior, social anxiety and recently also to concepts such as eating behavior, organizational behavior. While in specifics being different, the analyses share in common the idea that people attempt to control information for one or more salient audiences in ways that try to facilitate goal-achievement (Schlenker Weigold, 1992, p.136). The concept of impression, specifically in the field of organizational life, has received much more importance than ever before. Impression management is a commonly occurring part of organizational life and it is seen as essential to effective organizational communication (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). In the next section a look will be taken at the motives people have to engage or use impression management. 2.3 Motives to engage in impression management Being skilled in the process of impression management is becoming more significant for managers and it is especially true in work settings with high pressure and where quick decisions need to be made in a dynamic environment. Individuals who are not aware of this aspect of organizational life run the risk of performing poorly, or even being moved to lower positions in the organization (Gardner, 1992). The statement and explanation given above by Gardner might in some way explain why people would attempt to use impression management at work with their colleagues. Yet in general people wish to be perceived as intelligent, friendly and morally good (Rosenfeld, GiacaloneTedeschi, 1983, p.60). This explanation is given for the question of why people laugh more often at humorous stimuli when others are present than when they are own their own, the answer being to establish an identity of oneself as a friendly person. People engage in impression management for many reasons that are influenced by social, personal and situational factors. Some theorists describe the process as a quick cost-benefit analysis (Schlenker, 1980). At the same time people are assessing the benefits that might be achieved by presenting one image rather then another one, they are also considering the costs of presenting that particular image (Rosenfeld et al.,1995). Some situations in which impression management is less likely to occur were described by Jones and Pittman (1980). Under conditions of high task involvement, where the individual becomes absorbed in the task itself. In another research on the use of impression management in assessment centers it was mentioned that the process of impression management required much of an individuals cognitive resources and so it could interfere with effective performance of the individual (McFarland, Ryan, Kriska, 2003). Other situations mentioned by Jones and Pittman (1980) are purely expressive behaviors such as anger and joy and situations in which the person is most of all concerned with presenting his/her true self, such as therapy sessions (Gardner Martinko, 1988). Next to situational factors also social and personal factors influence the motives of individuals to engage in impression management. Leary and Kowalski (1990) believed that impression management could be used to increase personal well-being in three interrelated goals. First of all by maximizing ones reward-cost ratio in social relations. As mentioned earlier, self-presentation also allows individuals to optimize their benefit-cost ratio when dealing with others (Schlenker, 1980). Being able to form a good impression will increase the probability of a desired outcome, be it a interpersonal one such as friendship or power or be it material such as raise in salary due to being seen as more competent (Leary Kowalski, 1990, p.37). The second goal that Leary and Kowalski (1990) mention is enhancing ones self esteem. People might employ in impression management, to regulate their self-esteem in a two-fold manner. One reason was that reactions that other individuals have will positively (compliments) or negatively (criticism) affect your self-esteem. So individuals will act in a manner to be able to inflate their self-esteem by trying to receive positive feedback (Leary Kowalski, 1990, p.37). A second reason is that the self esteem of individuals is also influenced by the self-evaluation of their performances and the feedback that you as an individuals will expect to receive from others (Leary Kowalski, 1990). The third and final goal proposed by Leary and Kowalski (1990) is facilitating the development of desired identities. According to Cooley (1902) and Mead (1934) our identity is in the end derived from society, and individuals sometimes engage in certain behaviors to indicate the ownership of such identity-relevant characteristics (Leary Kowalski, 1990). People may even engage in impression management activities as protection if they feel there is a threat to their social image. As can be seen above there are several motives for people to engage in impression managing. Aside of situational and social factors there are also some personality traits that will affect the degree of impression management being used. For example the extent to which an individual possess the trait of machiavellianism might have an impact on the degree of impression management being used. In todays world it is defined as one who employs aggressive, manipulative, exploiting and devious moves in order to achie ve personal and organizational objectives (Calhoon, 1969, p. 241). From this definition it seems obvious to conclude that the higher the score for machiavellianism the more likely the individual will engage in impression management to achieve personal objectives. A second and final trait that can be decisive for the degree in which an individual engages in impression management is self-monitoring. Individuals differ in the way they monitor their self-presentation and expressive behavior (Snyder, 1974, p.536). Individuals with high levels of self-monitoring can effectively use this skill to create impressions they want. Furthermore these individuals are also better at purposely communicating and expressing emotion in verbal and non verbal manners (Snyder, 1974). Before reaching the overall conclusion of this chapter it can be said that indeed personality as well as social and situational factors play a clear role and deciding what individual will or will not use impression management in certain situations. 2.4 Conclusion In this chapter an in depth look was taken at the historical background of impression management and it can be said that since the mid 80s the topic has increasingly received attention from social psychologists and the awareness of its importance is also dramatically increasing in organizational life. Furthermore a look was taken at the several definitions of the concept by different researchers. The definition that will be employed throughout this paper will be the process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions other people form of them. In the final part of this chapter the several factors that might affect the motives of individuals to engage in impression management where studied. It was found that several situational, social and personality factors affect an individuals decision to employ impression management. In the next chapter a look will be taken at the choice of the type of impression management style or tactic that and individuals will choose.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Since the early twentieth Century, Sojourner Truth has been rated by a number of studies as among the prominent African Americans who have contributed to the rich history of the United States. Indeed, volumes of scholarly journals (Caroll, 1985; Redding, 1971) on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history have been adorned by her civil image and feminist character in the campaign against violation of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and slavery. Throughout her advocacy life, Truth will be remembered for having played a key role in raising funds for Black Union soldiers. Majority of feminist / black North Americans recognize her. Although her words are full of inspiration, her deeds have been overlooked in modern studies. Nonetheless, her name conveys a deeper sense of meaning despite being forgotten by a good number of her contemporariesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sterling, 1984). While the reputation of historic icons from the Negro population have not survived the nineteenth century (particularly those associated with illiteracy and poverty), the memory of SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds still endures. In view of her illiteracy, it is encouraging to acknowledge that her works as recorded by other people constitute her fame and power. Solidly engrossed to the evangelical life of northern antebellum in the United States, Sojourner, she remains an emblem of a phenomenon frequently associated with history in the twentieth century: popularity (Sterling, 1984). This paper examines her contribution to the United States. Between 1840 and 1850, Truth had commenced to forge a reputation at womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and anti-slavery meetings. By the late 1850s, her achievements had been merited in the narrative of Sojourner Truth (Brawdy, 1991). In essence, she forms the foundation of truth as described severally in different bibliographies and studies (Smith, 1950; Edwards, 1986). In her speech at a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting convention held at Ohio in 1851, her rhetoric ideologies never appeared emblematic not until the late 1970s. The gist of her remarks began to be captured by numerous newspaper accountsÃ¢â¬âthat women were entitled to equal rights as their male counterparts. Her famous quote as presented by Sterling (1984) is her lamentation and questioning about whether God existed at all. In her advocacy life, SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation beyond womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and abolitionist circles were amplified by Brawdy (1991). To date, these studies have served as requisite ingredients in explicating SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s persona on a historical perspective. In a lengthy dialect description, Caroll (1985) mentions her preaching. In this respect, Truth emerges more of an ex-slave than an abolitionist. Albeit Edwards (1986) mentions that she is famous in radical abolitionist mainstream) and not a vigorous advocate of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. According to Redding (1971), TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s comment on women dressed in bloomers is ridiculing and deprecatory. On the other hand, Truth appears seemingly exotic from BrawdyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1991) sketch. Outside the cultural mainstream, Truth appears as the most conspicuous preacher to have existed in ninetieth century America. As introduced by Edwards (1986), Truth is embodied with the temerity of brilliance. Contrastingly, this trait of TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s persona as revealed by Edwards (1986) is that of a pastoral, nineteenth century type that is exotic, savage and relatively different from the world of modernity. Some pioneers of the pre-colonial American history (such as Redding, 1971; Sterling, 1984) have commented on the attractiveness of American-based historical imaginations of earlier centuries. Nevertheless, Truth consistently stands out in all studies as uneducated, charismatic and divinely inspired. Her ethnic and racial heritages are the basis of her genius character described by historians such as Caroll 1985 and Edwards (1986) as Ã¢â¬Å"romantic racialismÃ¢â¬ that is common among abolitionists. With time, Sojourner truth emerged as an emulative model that is not at all to be dismissed or patronized. Her final wordsÃ¢â¬âworth enduringÃ¢â¬âencumbered by her conspicuous influential presence, have been distilled into strength and truth: the power to delve to the center of a controversial subject with few, elaborate, carefully chosen sentiments. As a feminist, abolitionist and evangelist, Sojourner truth (1797-1883) remains etched in the history of most Americans following her uneducated but vocal campaigns in solid support of the rights of slaves, women and victims of social injustices. Tales of TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s proactive and outspoken personalities, her unique styles of leadership, her act of displaying her breasts publicly to a crude, anxious audience that dared to challenge her womanhood, and the challenge she posed to Frederick Douglas on the subjects of slavery and violence, historically decors studies of her abolitionist lore (Edwards, 1986). As described by Brawdy (1991), TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful voice (graced with her Dutch-English accent), was amplified with her deep connection to religious convictions. Additionally, SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal magnetism, as attested by Smith (1950), claims that she is so far the only lady accredited to have been bestowed with the subtle power and influence to confront contradictory issues in the American history, notwithstanding the social implications of her actions. Though details of her lifetime remain sketchy and cloudy, she was born of poor, slave parents who resided in Ulster County. By then, she was known as Isabella and worked as a slave. Her contributions to emancipation of oppressed minorities from social restraint dates were initiated by her successful elusion from slavery in 1827 (Smith, 1951). After moving to New York City, she embraced evangelical religion and actively engaged in moral reforms. Having joined the Utopian Community (which was mainly based in New York), she ventured in the preaching career, acquiring a great deal of Biblical knowledge. Her abolitionist policies were inscribed in her entertaining and highly instructive gospel songs that she sang as a wandering orator and famous platform figure. A year before mandatory emancipation of slaves in New York City, Sojourner officially adopted the names Ã¢â¬Å"Sojourner TruthÃ¢â¬ in 1843. From BrawdyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1991) revelations, Truth proved to be a servant of the people during the Great Civil War. She collected clothing and food for displaced populations, tramping the isolated roads of Michigan. According to Edwards (1986), she was the first human rights activist to confront President Abraham Lincoln at White House, where she dedicated her life and mobilized resources to the service of freed persons. TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s extra-ordinary personality transcended her religious beliefs and obligations. A few studies claim that during the Reconstruction Period, she resolved to sell her personal images, photographs of her shadows as well as the narratives of her personal life to support the integration and inclusion of freed slaves into the American society (Smith, 1951; sterling, 1985). Truth is also remembered for initiating a petition drive that sought to procure land for the settlement of freed slaves. In addition, her interpersonal attributes were lent to movements against the suffrage of women, to an extent of suggesting the opinion of establishing a Ã¢â¬Å"Black State Ã¢â¬Å"in the West. Apart from dictating a number of letters that were pertinent to the question of landlessness which eventually gave rise to reconstruction, Truth consistently preached godliness and purity among the underrepresented and oppressed women. Moreover, Caroll (1985) also claims that TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy rests on the contents of her language and tone. In actual sense, she wasÃ¢â¬âand stillÃ¢â¬âis an advocate of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s liberty (especially women) with a concise and vocal epigraph, having stumped social sins from a country dominated by social inequities from different angles. Admittedly, it is apparent that the objectives of a petition drive and political motives have not been comprehensively described by present-day activists as Sojourner did (Caroll, 1985). To mid ninetieth century readers and audiences, the character of Sojourner Truth appeared different from the characterization reflected in the late twentieth century. According to Smith (1951), her persona image changed somehow after the Civil War, albeit not completely, in view of her twentieth century personality. Prior to the Civil War, Sojourn Truth championed for the rights of women in general terms. Her objective was to disseminate and sell copies of her calling cards and narratives, which were the primary sources of her livelihood. After settling in Washington, her life took a different twist after she sympathized with the pressing needs of freed slaves, who had turned out to southern refugees by then. Other than exploring means by which their relocation could be sought, she gathered courage to collect signatures for a settlement petition and lobbied for monetary aid to fund assistive services. By the late nineteenth century, her quest for humanitarian sobriety heightened and she addressed the needs that were apparently urgent (Smith, 1951). After retiring from the lecture circuit in the late 1880s, her courage revitalized. Ideally, SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s version of truth as edited by Sterling (1984) gained currency. While white human rights advocates and anti-slavery movements found SojournerÃ¢â¬â¢s character to be attractive and charming, a few blacks remained ambivalent about her antebellum achievements as a spokesperson of minorities, before an American pastoral of white audiences. She is no longer sophisticated in presentations echoed by romantic racists. To date, Truth continues to represent as self-made model with extra-ordinary abilities. In addition, she is the foundation on the need to re-establish an American history that is simultaneously sensitive to gender, race and class distinctions. On the other hand, her controversial claims at one time placed her in a rather awkward position contrary to that of State echelons. For this reason, she was physically assaulted when she publicly denounced racism while championing or equal treatment for all (Edwards, 1986). In light of the successes and shortcomings that featured her philanthropic life she succumbed to ulcers in 1883 after enduring the pains of an ulcerated leg for ten years. Remarkably, TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral procession at Battle Creek remains the largest ever witnessed in the burial of United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ iconic figures, serving as a true testimony of her influence to the historical imagination of the United States (Carol, 1985, Edwards, 1986).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
I'll upload one later, I'm on my phone Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)* Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features .Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*qElizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry?Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry?Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry?Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry?Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style.Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied. *Good Luck ;)*Elizabeth Bishop poses interesting questions delivered by means of a unique style. Do u agree with this assesment of her poetry? Your answer should focus on both themes and stylistic features . Support your points with the aid of suitable reference to the poems you have studied.
Friday, November 8, 2019
7 Packaging Label Errors 7 Packaging Label Errors 7 Packaging Label Errors By Mark Nichol Considering the countless labeled products of all kinds available in sundry stores, itÃ¢â¬â¢s astonishingly rare to find a typographical error or similar mistake on packaging. Accidents do happen, however especially in the case of products manufactured and packaged overseas as the following images attest. Gratuitous quotation marks, usually seen on handwritten signs because of the sign makerÃ¢â¬â¢s misguided intention to Ã¢â¬Å"highlightÃ¢â¬ key words, are virtually unknown on printed packaging. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an exception; perplexingly, whoever was responsible for labeling this tomato sauce considered it necessary to emphasize tomato. This strategy, however, often has an effect opposite to that intended; enclosing a word in quotation marks implies that the product is ersatz imitation tomato sauce, anybody? Furthermore, each word in the primary line of identification (IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure the advertising industry has catchy jargon for this feature) in this case, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËTomatoÃ¢â¬â¢ sauceÃ¢â¬ is generally initially capitalized if the line is not rendered entirely in uppercase letters, so sauce should be promoted to Sauce. (There are also a couple of errors at the end of the ingredient list: In many countries, a comma, rather than a period, is used to denote a decimal, but this Italian productÃ¢â¬â¢s text should have been Anglicized; also, no letter space should separate the percentage figure from the percent sign.) HowÃ¢â¬â¢s that for customer service? A word with four letters as opposed to a four-letter word, which is something else entirely apparently the only text on what appears to be a small metal pail, is misspelled. (I guess the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s proofreader was absent from work that day.) To try to make amends, the store management props to some vigilant employee! reduces the productÃ¢â¬â¢s price. Frankly, I would pay dearly for this word-nerd collectorÃ¢â¬â¢s item. The apostrophe in MiniÃ¢â¬â¢s is extraneous, but the perhaps deliberate error is understandable but not excusable: Minis looks awkward (Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a min-iss?Ã¢â¬ ). How about just Mini, though? Such a prominent error on a package produced by a major corporation and featuring such sophisticated packaging design is very nearly astounding, considering that RCA and the like have entire departments devoted to vetting advertising and marketing content; I once proofed packaging for a (smaller) company myself. In addition, multidirectional needs no hyphen, but trying to eradicate that ubiquitous anachronism like most prefixes, multi- was originally attached to root words with a hyphen is a lost cause. Geak? I admit misspelling nerd in my college newspaper, but this is absurd. (And anyone who wears this geaky Halloween gear is a freek.) Yes, yes, Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Online cites mantle as a variant spelling for the word for the structure over a fireplace, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an observation, not an endorsement. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s maintain the distinction between mantel and mantle, which share an etymology but among careful writers, at least have unique meanings. Who among us doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a slimer body? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s just hope it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t turn our body black, like that slimed-down silhouette. These images are from the websites Apostrophe Abuse, English Fail Blog, The Ã¢â¬Å"BlogÃ¢â¬ of Ã¢â¬Å"UnnecessaryÃ¢â¬ Quotation Marks, and Wordsplosion.com, as well as from Daily Writing Tips reader thebluebird11. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Does [sic] Mean?How to Pronounce Mobile15 English Words of Indian Origin
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
20 History Essay Topics What to Talk about in a Paper on Egyptian Revolution of 2011 If you are in need of some topics for your history essay on the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, you should consider the causes, casualties, and consequences. All three of these categories make for substantial and important topics which can be used for a history essay on the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. That being said, picking a proper topic can be tricky. It is for this reason that you will find a list of 20 topics on the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 below helpful. Foreign Policies Influencing Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Casualties by Police Forces in Egyptian Revolution Foreign Policy Consequences of Egyptian 25th of January Revolution Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Socioeconomic Causes Political Contributions to Egyptian 25th of January Revolution Governmental Problems after Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Issues Facing New Government Elected After Egyptian Revolution Political Reasons that Led to the 25th of January Revolution Government Responses to Mass Protests in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Protest Power: How Protests Spark Real Change in Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Why Reforms Were Unsuccessful After the 25th of January Revolution How Tunisia Laid Groundwork for Egyptian Revolution Why TunisiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Revolution Was Quicker and More Successful than the Egyptian Revolution Unemployment Levels in Egypt Before Versus After Egyptian Revolution Poverty Levels in Egypt Before Compared to After the Egyptian Revolution Muslim Brotherhood After the Elections Influence of International Politics on Police Brutality in Egyptian Revolution Use of Technology in the Egyptian Revolution of January 25th Age Demographics of Protesters in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Internet Restrictions: Causing Bigger Influence of National Media Sample History Essay on Political Reasons that Led to the 25th of January Revolution The Egyptian Revolution of 2011 had many causes. It also had many casualties and many consequences for the future of Egypt. The former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak had signed many foreign policies which did not sit well with his constituents, namely agreements for peace with Israel and support from the United States. But in addition to these issues, political corruption was rampant and as this rampant nature of the governing machine grew, so did the unemployment rates and poverty rates among citizens. In the decade prior to the Egyptian revolution opposition organizations began to form rapidly. The Muslim Brotherhood was among the top opposition organizations calling for free elections and demanding that the presidential elections to be democratic. While the former president had been elected for over two decades at that time, he had faced no opposition and ran in single-party elections. Having a single candidate election had upseted the citizens of Egypt to no end. Many people have outspoken against the president and the hold he had on political power. Those who have outspoken faced severe penalties including torture, imprisonment and even death in hands of the internal security services. In 2005 the Muslim Brotherhood had gained so much popularity that local elections indicated they would win. The former president Hosni Mubarak had banned the Muslim brotherhood from the country. For the first time in 2010 the former president of Egypt faced an opponent. After the victory of Hosni Mubarak, he had his opponent jailed on the charges of fraud. Beginning in December of the year 2010 there were unprecedented numbers of demonstrations throughout several Arab countries against political repression, poverty and corruption. These demonstrations challenged the authority of some of the most historically eventful in the Middle East. This was the case in which the uprising of Egypt had forced one of the most influential and long-serving leaders of the region from power. The first demonstrations took place in December of the year 2010 in Tunisia. They have started when a young man set himself on fire because of unemployment rate and the police corruption that was rampant in the country. Rallies have demanded for the president to step down.They had occurred throughout the country and in many cases the police had to resort to violence in order to control the crowds. As the clashes between protesters and police escalated the president announced a handful of economic and political reforms in the attempt to stop the continued violence. His attempts were unsuccessful. As the demonstrations continued the president was forced to flee the country. This success of this uprising which has since been called the Jasmine Revolution is what inspired a similar movement in Egypt. Many youth groups organized demonstrations including the established opposition parties of Egypt. These organizations too have set up bases in the capital city and many large cities throughout the country. The protesters called for the president to step down and demanded free elections and democracy. These demonstrations continued to gain strength and as they did the president resorted to violent tactics against the protesters. These tactics resulted in hundreds of injuries and deaths. The presidents attempt to placate the protesters with certain concessions such as agreeing to step down at the end of his current term did not satisfy the citizens. Three weeks of mass protest took place before the president finally stepped down and left the Egyptian military in control of the country. While the protesters in Egypt focused the anger they had on domestic issues like that of government opposition, oppression and poverty. Many observers took note that the political change was able to impact the foreign affairs and affect the long-standing political balance throughout Egypt. Central element of the foreign policy under the ousted president became unpopular with the public. It is established that with a new regime such foreign and internal policies could be changed for better. References: Abdelmottlep, Mamdooh A. The Egyptian Revolution: An Analysis of the Egyptian Police Response, the Way to the Egyptian Police Reform (Subjective Projection).Ã FRCIJÃ 1.5 (2015): n. pag. Web. Hamdy, Basma, and Stone.Ã Walls of Freedom. Print. Khalil, Ashraf.Ã Liberation Square. New York: St. Martins Press, 2012. Print. Rennick, Sarah Anne. Contested Meanings in the Egyptian Revolution.Ã socioÃ 2 (2013): 81-98. Web. Salman, Doaa. Vulnerable Egyptian Labor Market Challenges After the Egyptian Revolution.Poverty Public PolicyÃ 6.3 (2014): 239-258. Web. Saouli, Adham. Performing The Egyptian Revolution: Origins of Collective Restraint Action in the Midan.Ã Political StudiesÃ 63.4 (2014): 730-746. Web. Steavenson, Wendell.Ã Circling The Square. Print.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Despite the criticisms often levelled at the Community institutions and their powers to legislate, it should be remembered that ultimate power still lies with t - Essay Example The legal scheme said to be designed by the Treaty at the outset has been assessed as having shortfalls in its objective of ensuring that the EC law be properly applied by the Member States. Article 169 procedures as a legal instrument in fighting against all the failures to fulfill obligations accordingly is not appropriate. This implies the need to create additional means to enforce and supervise the EC law (Gil IbÃ ¡Ã ±ez, 1997). To date, the Community and its underlying legal order can only hold on if that legal order is safeguarded and complied with and the Community law directly applied, with its primacy over national law (ABC of community law, 2004). For all its imperfections, however, the European Community legal order is said to have greatly helped in solving the political, economic and social problems of the Member States (ABC of community law, 2004). But there is yet the tag and pull when it comes to location of power in most aspects. Different institutions cooperate and govern the European Union and the most important of these are the Council, the Commission, the European Parliament and the Court of Justice. (EU Law, n.d.). With its own set of legislation, the European Community also has the laws of its member states. EC Law is concerned with treaties, regulations, and decisions of the European Court of Justice (Ibid). Made within the part of the European Union called the European Communities (EC), the EC Law is only the legislation that is applicable, hence called EC law. Based on the Treaties, it is the fundamental rules of the EU serving as agreements between the Member States. EC law comprises four different fields, namely primary law (the Treaties and the accession treaties of the new Member States), secondary law (all existing legal acts accepted by institutions of the European Union), international agreements between the European Union and
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Source Debate and the Similarities of Albovine and The Witch - Thesis Proposal Example The Source Debate and the Similarities of Albovine and The Witch Controversy surrounds where a similar instance can be found in the beginning act of The Witch by Thomas Middleton: at a remarkable feast arranged for the marriage of Isabella and Antonio, the Duke passes around a skull fashioned as a goblet among the party attendees and makes them drink from it. As it happens, the skull belonged to the slain father of the Duchess, who is also present at the dinner and is expected to drink from it. This basic similarity between the two plays is the premise of my suggested thesis. In an article studying the true source of Albovine, Killis Campbell asserts that The Witch was not published until 1778 by the famous Shakespearean editor Isaac Reed; however, it is purported to have been written in the early 17th century by Middleton, in around 1615-1616. Albovine was registered in 1629 (Campbell) leading to clear possibility that Davenant had been aware of The Witch before Albovine was conceived. Further proof of his knowledge can be taken from the fact that he used the Witch in his rendition of Macbeth. Niccolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The History of Florence is also credited by some historians as being the source of these plays, including another Irish play called The Revengeful Queen by William Phillips; however, PhillipsÃ¢â¬â¢ work seems to be based more on Machiavelli and both Albovine and The Revengeful Queen bear resemblance to the Witch, making DavenantÃ¢â¬â¢s work open to the charge of plagiarism.