Monday, September 30, 2019
Lottery, card games, sports betting and money wagers. These are a few kinds of gambling that adults engage in; however, the youth of today are also found to be gambling more than adults (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002; Huang & Boyer, 2007). According to Derevensky & Gupta (2002), there is an alarmingly high percentage of children and adolescents engaged in gambling activities. In a long-term analysis between 1984 to 1999, it was found that the prevalence of youth gambling in North America increased from 45% to 66% and that the proportion of the youth who have serious gambling-related problems have increased as well from 10% to 15% in the same time period (Huang & Boyer, 2007). In the past 25 years in the United States and Canada, it has been found that the youth is significantly associated with gambling-related problems; the percentage of youth classified under the Sub-clinical or problem gambling (Level 2) and the pathological gambling (Level 3) were at 14. 6% and 4. 8% respectively in 2006, which is more than twice of the adults who only have a percentage of 2. 5% and 1. 5% each (ibid). Among the youth, it has also been found that more young men gamble more than women and they are also identified to be problem gamblers than young women and even among adults (Huang & Boyer, 2007). In North America today, approximately 80% of adolescents have participated in some form of gambling for money within in their lifetime (Felsher, Derevensky & Gupta, 2003; Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). This is an alarming rate. The number of youth who are engaged in adolescent gambling is higher today more than ever before and it is starting to become a serious public health issue that many nations, especially the United States and Canada, are trying to address (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Considerable research by psychologist and sociologists are being conducted regarding this problem. This paper will identify the causes of adolescent gambling, its consequences and what psychologists and the government are doing to treat this issue. Causes of Adolescent Gambling The availability and accessibility of gambling increased progressively in the United States and Canada from 1984-1999, which was also the time that an increase in youth gambling also occurred (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002). This increase in youth gambling has been attributed to the support of the two governments in the lucrative gambling industry. Political economy theories of Sauer maintain that this is due to the need for revenue generation of the large governments (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The youth have become exposed to numerous gambling establishments, directly and indirectly (Felsher et al, 2003). The widespread legalization of the different kinds of gambling in North America has greatly exposed the youth to the addictive game (ibid; Huang & Boyer, 2007). Gambling has already become a Ã¢â¬Å"well-established recreational form of entertainmentÃ¢â¬ (Felsher et al, 2003) and there is already an estimated 15. 3million adolescents in North America who have engaged in gambling activities and 2. 2 million of these are problem or pathological gamblers (Huang & Boyer, 2007). Among 12-17 year old Americans, 4%Ã¢â¬â8% of them are already pathological gamblers and another 10%Ã¢â¬â15% of the youth are at risk of developing a serious problem (Felsher et al. , 2003; Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Adolescents gamble because they are tempted by the Ã¢â¬Å"lure of excitement, entertainment, and potential financial gain associated with gamblingÃ¢â¬ (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Increased exposure to gambling will teach the kids to gamble, and the social learning theory of Albert Bandura points out the role of observation and imitation in the acquisition and maintenance of socially desirable and undesirable characteristics (Felsher et al. , 2003). The increased exposure they have in gambling influences them to do the same. Family and friends are the primary reference groups, but it is the parents who have a stronger influence since they occur earlier than the peer group (ibid). The parents are observed to be having fun and adolescents surveyed said they gamble because their parents play for enjoyment and excitement, and it is the parents who play their children and engage them in gambling (ibid). In the social learning theory, there are six mechanisms identified that is involved in the development of gambling and these are: 1) affective states such as anxiety or depression; 2) cognitive distortions about gambling; 3) behavioral reinforcement schedules; 4) social and institutional determinants such as opportunity to gamble; 5) sub-cultural conditions like prevailing attitude towards gambling and values of the adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s social context and reference groups (as seen in the preceding paragraph); and 6) internal fantasy relationships with personifications like the parents or Ã¢â¬Å"lady luckÃ¢â¬ (Upfold, 2007). Lottery is the most favored form of gambling by adolescents because of its ease of accessibility and the minimal amount of money required to participate in the draw (Felsher et al. , 2003). Parents purchase the lottery tickets and they include their children in their gambling activity by asking for their advice, such as what number/s they should pick, let them carry the money, fill in the lottery stubs, scratching the numbers, etc. (ibid). This observation and direct participation of gambling from significant reference groups, such as the parents, influences the youthÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in gambling activities (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The parental acceptance of gambling as a recreational activity further encourages the youth to partake in it (Felsher et al. , 2003). Adolescents who gamble say that they have learned it from their parents. 15% of children made first bet with their parents and another 20% with other family members (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Parents gamble in close proximity to their children and they have a poor understanding of the negative consequences that this will have on their child (ibid). The Cognitive-Behavioral Model, which is part of the social-learning theory, may explain this cause. The model is based on the principles of learning from imitation, observation, schedules of enforcement and cognition or how the youth would interpret and draw conclusions about the events around him or her (Upfold, 2007). They are enforced to gamble since the adolescents report that their parents are aware of their gambling and that they do not object to it; 50% of parents are aware and are not worried, disregarding the age of the child (Felsher et al. , 2003). 58. 5% of children in the study of Felsher et al. (2003) also say that they wager money with their parents, hence they are taught to gamble; some parents even purchase lottery tickets for their childÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf and it has been found that the more severe gambling a child is doing, the more tickets there are purchased by parents. Also, adolescents who were found to be regularly gambling report that they gamble with their family members and 40% say they do it with their parents (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Problem gambling is governed by a complex set of interrelating factors, causes, and determinants: biological, familial, behavioral, social, and environmentalÃ¢â¬ (ibid). Under environmental, ease of access of online-gambling sites on the Internet is a new problem since the youth can easily access it and can be enticed by the visual appeals of Internet gambling (ibid). Another important reference point and part of the environmental factor which indirectly teaches gambling to children and reinforces it is the school. There are schools who promote gambling through fundraising activities including lottery, raffle draws, bingo, casino nights, and by permitting card playing within schools (ibid). Another explanation for causes of gambling is the Psychodynamic Model, which proposes that personal problems Ã¢â¬Å"lie within the psyche and are an attempt at self-healing or a strategy of resolving unconscious psychic conflictsÃ¢â¬ ¦beyond voluntary control,Ã¢â¬ (Upfold, 2007), hence the individual continues to engage in gambling. There are three main components in this model and they are: 1) Gambling is an unconscious substitute for aggressive outlets; 2) Gambling involves an unconscious desire to lose- a wish to be punished in reaction to guilt; and 3) Gambling is a medium for continued enactment of psychological conflict (ibid). Adolescents do not engage in gambling for money but for excitement and enjoyment; through video lottery terminals, sports betting, cards, lotteries, bingo and other forms of gambling, adolescents with a gambling problem exhibit a number of dissociative behaviors such as escape into another world where they have altered egos (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002). Their personality traits that are correlated with risk-taking behavior such as excitable, extroverted, anxious and lower self-discipline show that they have poor coping and adaptive skills, so when they cannot cope with many hardships in their life or the stress of being a teenager, they gamble to Ã¢â¬Å"escape from the realities of daily lifeÃ¢â¬ (ibid). Gambling has been a way for adolescents who experience negative life events and use emotional-coping strategies to escape their problems, even if they have claimed to have social support from their peers (ibid; Bergevin, Gupta & Derevensky, 2006). The Trait Theory of Gambling is also part of the psychodynamic model and it show that there are certain personalities that is related to the problem of gambling such as depression, anti-social personality disorder- particularly for pathological gamblers, and narcissism- as seen in the compulsive gamblers (Upfold, 2007). Other identified risk factors that may lead to adolescent gambling include male gender, alcohol and drug use, deviant peers, family history of gambling, and impulsive behavior (Pietrzak, Ladd & Petry, 2003). Consequences of Adolescent Gambling The consequences of adolescent gambling are somewhat similar to that of adult gamblers; they not only affect themselves but society as a whole. Adolescent gambling does not only affect the individual adolescent but their families, peers, communities and health services (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The consequences the adolescent gamblers face are widespread and affects their psychological, behavioral, legal, academic, family and interpersonal domains- they become delinquent, have poor academic performance, impair their academic performance or even drop out from school, disrupt their relationship with family and friends, and display criminal behavior (ibid). They face negative health, psychological, social, personal and financial consequences that is why gambling is becoming a public health issue (ibid). It has been found that there is a strong correlation between adolescent gambling and the increased likelihood to drink alcohol, smoke tobacco and use drugs (Hardoon, Gupta & Derevensky, 2004). Huang & Boyer (2007) also says that adolescent gamblers are more likely to experience psychiatric problems, especially substance use disorders. The common factors that lead to this among adolescents are low self-esteem, depression, suicidal thoughts, victim of abuse, poor school performance, history of delinquency, poor impulse control, being male, early onset of gambling, parental history of gambling, and community/family acceptance of gambling (ibid). This will greatly affect the future of the youth since all that they indulge in is gambling. They become dissociated from the real world and spend much of their time gambling that they do not get to develop themselves as individuals anymore. They become more susceptible to suicide ideation and attempts, they replace their old friends with their gambling associates and they have a higher risk to develop an addiction or poly addictions (Gupta & Derevensky, 2002). In the study of Felsher et al. (2003), they found that 94% of young male gamblers and 93% of young female gamblers are not afraid to get caught. This shows their lack of concern on what may happen to them if they are caught and this may also show the acceptance of their parents. Since parents and most institutions fail to recognize gambling as a serious problem or certain activities to be gambling (Derevensky and Gupta, 2002), the adolescents are at a higher risk to further develop their gambling addiction. The course of gambling varies from one individual to another; however, the social learning theory shows that since gambling behavior is acquired it can be thought of as a continuum or stages from problem-free gambling all the way to pathological gambling (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005; Upfold, 2007). Messerlian & Derevensky (2005) states that Ã¢â¬Å"as gambling escalates and one moves along the continuum of gambling risk, the negative outcomes begin to outweigh any potential benefitsÃ¢â¬ and this is when they would start experiencing different kinds of impaired personal, health, financial and social consequences. Treatments to Adolescent Gambling The numerous psychosocial costs of gambling to the individual, his/her family and to the community shows that this is a problem that must be addressed and treated (Derevensky and Gupta, 2002). Some adolescents do not know that they have a gambling addiction or disorder and this prevents them from getting proper treatment (ibid) however, with the intervention of family, friends or event the school, the adolescent may get treated. There are several kinds of treatment for adolescents who are already problem or pathological gamblers. Before these are discussed, prevention models for gambling will be discussed first since prevention is better than cure. Government policies should be stricter regarding gambling, particularly On-line gambling since that is readily accessible to the youth. Public policies that can influence the social environment and minimize unhealthy gambling behavior such as Ã¢â¬Å"legislation on advertising and promotion, laws regulating minimum age-requirements and their enforcement, provision of programs for harm minimization, fiscal measures, and regulation of the availability of productsÃ¢â¬ should be balanced with the economic gains of the gambling industry (Messerlian & Derevensky 2005). Other prevention models suggested by Derevensky & Gupta (2002) include the need for awareness of the problem; activities that increase knowledge on adolescent gambling; programs to help modify and change attitude that gambling is not harmless; teaching of effective coping and adaptive skills to prevent problematic gambling; changing inappropriate conceptions about skill and luck, the illusion of control and independence in gambling activities; and identification, assessment and referral of students who are indicative of being at risk to gambling problems. Psychosocial approaches are one of the methods used to treat pathological gambling and this for adults this includes Gamblers Anonymous (Pietrzak et al. , 2006). For the adolescents several youth groups have been formed such as youthbet. net in Canada and wannabet. org in the United States; these website are managed by youths and non-governmental organizations to offer assistance and collaboration to adolescents (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Piertzak et al. (2006) found that cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and eclectic therapy have been helpful in reducing problematic gambling behaviors. CBT involves altering the inaccurate perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of adolescents about gambling. The eclectic therapy is the individual approach to treating gambling problems and consists of: detailed assessment, acceptance of the problem, development of effective coping skills, restructuring of free time, involvement of family and social supports, cognitive restructuring, establishment of debt payment plans and relapse prevention (ibid). The motivational enhancement therapy (MET) is also used and is based on the concept that behavior change occurs through identifiable stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance (ibid). In this approach, the therapist is non-confrontational and elicits the adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the consequences of gambling and strengthens the commitment to change the ways of the individual; since it has a shorter duration that CBT and other therapies, MET is recommended for onset problems (ibid). A disease model is also sometimes used to treat gambling problems. In this approach, the compulsive gambler is made to embrace abstinence from gambling, to participate in self-help groups and to maintain abstinence by going through therapy to deal with previous or latent psychological problems (Upfold, 2007). There is also the Ecological Approach wherein gambling behavior is viewed from multiple perspectives and addresses the behavior from an individual and socio-environmental level where interventions are made at five levels that affects an individual to gamble: biological, familial, behavioral, social and environmental (Messerlian & Derevesnky, 2005). Internal and external factors cause an adolescent to gamble. Occasional gambling is harmless but once exposed to gambling especially at a young age, gambling problems may occur and develop into an addiction, which may affect the social, academic and personal life of the adolescent. Treatments vary such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, eclectic therapy, motivational-enhancement therapy and ecological approach; however, prevention of adolescent gambling is still the best and this can be done through increased awareness about the public health problem and stricter government policies regarding access of adolescents to gambling venues, especially online gambling. Bibliography Bergevin, T. , Gupta, R. and Derevensky, J. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Understanding the role of stress and coping. Journal of Gambling Studies, (22), 195-208. Derevensky, J. L. and Gupta, R. (2002). Youth gambling: A clinical and research perspective. The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://www. camh. net/egambling/issue2/feature/index. html Felsher, J. R. , Derevensky, J. L. , Gupta, R. (2003). Parental influences and social modelling of youth lottery participation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 13: 361-377. Hardoon, K. K. , Gupta, R. and Derevensky, J. L. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 (2), 170 Ã¢â¬â 179. Huang, J. H. and Boyer, R.. (2007). Epidemiology of youth gambling problems in Canada: A national prevalence study. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52 (10). Messerlian, C. and Derevensky, M. (2005). Youth gambling: A public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Issues (14). Pietrzak, R. H. , Ladd, G. T. and Petry, N. M. (2003). Disordered gambling in adolescents: Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Drugs, 5 (9), 583 Ã¢â¬â 592. Upfold, Darryl. (2007). An introduction to conceptual models of problem gambling. Center for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved April 13, 2008, from http://www. problemgambling. ca/EN/ResourcesForProfessionals/Pages/AnIntroductiontoConceptualModelsofProblemGambling. aspx
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Measuring unemployment accurately is made difficult because of imperfect knowledge. Not all instances of unemployment are recorded, and some records of unemployment may not be accurate. Because the unemployed are eligible for benefits, some individuals may work, but not disclose it, and claim benefit. Conversely, many unemployed may not bother to inform the authorities, and this unemployment goes unrecorded. The Claimant Count records those claiming unemployment benefit (Job Seekers Allowance, or JSA) and can prove they are actively looking for work. It excludes housewives and those on training schemes. The Claimant Count may not reflect the true level of unemployment in the UK economy, given that not all the unemployed will bother to claim, and some are deterred because they cannot prove they are looking for work. This is especially true of part-time employees who are much less likely to register as unemployed compared with full-time workers. While some individuals may fraudulently claim, it is generally recognised that the Claimant Count under-estimates actual unemployment levels. The labour force survey is undertaken by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and is a more direct assessment of unemployment, rather than those who claim benefit. It is based on an interview of a sample of 60,000 households (approximately 120,000 people) and tries to measure Ã¢â¬ËunemploymentÃ¢â¬â¢ as a whole, rather than those simply claiming benefits. To be considered as being unemployed individuals must: Have been out of work for 4 weeks. Be able to start work in the next 2 weeks, so they must be readily available for work. Workers only need to be available for work for one hour per week, so part-time unemployment is included in the measurement, though these workers are unlikely to claim unemployment benefit. This tends to make ILO unemployment much higher than the Claimant Count.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Story of a Bird ric bird was flying through a forest and had very luckily and eventually found his best tree to build a nest to stay, to enjoy and to love in his lifetime. When he flied towards the tree with great happiness and hope, he was shot ruthlessly, however. But the shoot didn't cause an immediate death to the bird. And he asked why he couldn't be shot early - before he had found his best tree. 'I don't fear death, but I fear the death with regret' said the bird. he bird was looking at his best tree as much as he could before his breathing stopped while he was bleeding badly. 'If God didn't like me to build a nest at my best tree, why did God lead me to find it?' 'Does God like to see my deepest disappointment?' cried the bird. he breathing of the bird had become slower and weaker. But his eyes were still kept on his best tree. He didn't try to seek help because he didn't want to waste a little bit time from looking at his best tree. 'All my attention, my concern and my mind belong to my best tree.' said the bird, with smile. His sight became slimmer and slimmer, and his eyes were going to close. 'My heart and regret are eternal' cried the bird. And then his breathing stopped. His body was made to be a specimen put in the house of a Canadian family.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Euthanasia in Terminal Illness - Essay Example Included in the topics to be covered are the different approaches that present the reasons for undertaking or employing euthanasia. Historical Roots of Euthanasia The history of euthanasia can be traced back to the reign of the Greeks and Romans when the term originated. Though it is meant to imply a good death, euthanasia is often deemed with negativity since it can be translated as physician-assisted suicide and compared to other ethical and moral social issues such as abortion, capital punishment, and issues related to beginning or ending of human life (McDougall, Gorman and Roberts, 2008, p.2). During the first to firth century, Greeks and Romans are allowed to access poison and choose death. The rise of the influence of Christianity during the Roman Empire had a great impact on the view on euthanasia. Death regardless of what reason was prohibited. During the middle ages, 5th to 15th century, the Catholic Church stressed the religious condemnation of euthanasia and that sufferin g is a sign of spiritual virtues of martyrdom. Then the Renaissance (14th to 17th century) came and changed the view on euthanasia through the discovery of modern scientific knowledge that are still influential in the present era. Thus, there is diversification of view on euthanasia since the church is still against the issue (McDougall, Gorman and Roberts, 2008, p.3-4). The view on euthanasia continuously changed as the Age of Reason came in during the 18th century. Scientific prowess opened the mind of the people regarding the need of every person to have a choice regarding death. In 1798, six colonies ceased the legal penalties for attempted suicide. The open mindedness of the authorities though made a frightening turn during the pre-WW II and Nazi Germany (1920-45) when the secretly approved government program that killed handicapped, mentally ill and people un asylums became the onset of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Euthanasia Programme that even included people of least capability to defen d themselves regardless of being healthy such as women and children (p.5). With the foundations of views and beliefs from the previous eras, the perspective toward euthanasia in the present era became divided. This is the main reason why it became a personal issue to decide on whether or not euthanasia should be applied. Law and medical ethics mandate the guidelines for euthanasia while the person himself and the relatives hold the decision to apply it. Philosophical Roots of Euthanasia Euthanasia is one of the main concerns in the field of medicine based on the fact that it is a controversial issue in ethics. The ethical question lies in the death of a person. If the person himself/herself consented for the act, there is a question the personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to take his/her own life. If the act is the decision of the relatives or the medical professionals since it may be the only solution left for the patient, there is a question on their right to decide the time when a person shoul d die (Andersen and Taylor, 2007, p.552).
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Safety and Efficacy of Resveratrol - Assignment Example Adversarial effects of drug in humans have ever been experienced. Longstanding side effects remain unknown (Barclay 2007). A negligible and short-lived clinical experiment performed few years ago among the obese patients provided 150 mg each day of the compound manifested no dangerous reactions (Sarubin-Fragakis & Thomson 2007).Resveratrol can act as an enhancer or antagonist to the estrogen according to Linus Pauline institute. As a result it might promote or discourage the development of cancers that depend on estrogen among individuals. However, there is no proof that the drug promotes or discourage cancer development among women.MedicationsConsumption of large quantities of pure resveratrol might elevate drug levels in blood which are normally metabolized by CYP3A4 (Barclay 2007). Such occurrences imply that calcium particular immunosuppressant drugs, channel blockers as well as erectile dysfunction might increase quantities of blood. Critical caution is necessary when administer ing the pure resveratrol together with the drugs such as the anti-coagulant as well as the anti- platelets (DyBuncio 2012). Before taking the drugs, kindly refer to the labels and ensure that you abide by the requirements such as not being a child or pregnant. Pharmaceutical advice is necessary in all situations (Polycarpou 2013).Resveratrol may enlarge blood vessels besides decreasing the action of cells essential for clotting the blood. Some studies proposes that resveratrol has frail estrogen influences.
Mod 2 case Tort Law - Essay Example ACE sports owed a duty of care to the users of the rim to ensure that the rim was safe and did not have any parts that would possibly cause harm to the players who used it. This duty of care was breached when Bobby hurt himself with the small pieces of metal left on the rim due to lack of reasonable care by ACE sports. Dr. Andrews, on the other hand, is also liable in negligence for erroneously amputating BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s functional wrist. The doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions were caused by medical negligence, when the surgeon did not exercise the required standard of care before performing the amputation. In establishing medical negligence, it is essential to demonstrate the occurrence of medical negligence or error, and more significantly, that this error or negligence resulted in physical or psychological suffering to the patient (Charlesworth, Walton, & Cooper, 2011). In BobbyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, his left wrist was erroneously amputated and this is sufficient to establish both error and physical suffering required to establish medical negligence. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) provides for how and when a patient might be denied treatment or transferred to another medical facility when such a patient is in an unstable medical condition. The Act provides that where a patient presents himself to a medical institution requiring examination or treatment the hospital must provide the appropriate screening to establish if the patient has an emergency medical condition. Where it is established that indeed there is an emergency medical condition, the hospital is obligated to provide treatment to the patient until the condition stabilizes or transfer the patient to another hospital. Where the emergency condition is not established, then the statute imposes no obligation on the hospital. The act defines an emergency condition as a medical condition with acute symptoms where absence of treatment is reasonably expected to cause impairment or a
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Structure and Characteristics - Research Paper Example The Chinese population during 1980s was around 1 billion. The slow growth rate o the population can be attributed to Ã¢â¬Ëone child policyÃ¢â¬â¢. In the next few decades, the population of china is expected to increase. Reasons for this expected increase are a decline in infant mortality rate and also a sudden decrease in death rate due to the improvement in national health. Though the population is expected to rise even more, however, around 2030s, it is anticipated to reach its peak level and then decline gradually. Another such country that I have taken up is Germany. Germany along with few other European countries have a substantially low growth rate of population. The German population has crossed 82 million long before. Since 1990s, population of Germany has increased considerably. The main reason behind this increase was immigration, i.e. entry of individuals in the country. Infact, it is also assumed that if Germany did not witness immigration, its population would have b een shrinking much like that of Czech Republic. However, in the near future, the total expected population of Germany is expected to decline. According to destatis.de, in the coming decades, the population will decline due to decline in birth rates and increase in birth rates. Life expectancy will increase and birth rate will continue to fall in future.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Human Resources Management 4 - Essay Example After implementing the policy of casual dress policy, Digital Device started to face few issues. The employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior became more casual with the clients resulting in complaints to the sales manager. The Casual dress should be allowed but there should also be certain rules and regulations with respect to casual dressing among the employees. The policy should be revised in accordance with the HR manager and list of approved and not approved items. However after implementing the casual dress policy and revising it again after few months might not be acceptable for the employees and they might not agree to the revised list as to which of the type of casual dress to be followed. It is very important to communicate the changes that are to be taken place in the organization to its respective employees. Here the HR department plays a vital role as it is the duty of the HR to communicate the revised policy to the employees. The revised policy can be communicated personally to each department by conducting meetings with the respective teams by the HR head. This might have a positive impact on the employees rather than just sending mails and listing the revised policy in the notice board. The policy of losing the job if one found to be guilty of smoking or stealing has been practiced in most of the organizations. The new policy treat cigarettes as an illegal narcotic and aims to adopt a free smoker free workplace. If the policy is mentioned in the contract before joining the organization it can be viewed to be legal and very much ethical. The organizations aim to provide with a healthy working area and also ensuring proper health of the employees. At Health Unlimited each of the employees is required to sign a statement stating that the employee is a non smoker and will not smoke either at work or away from work. It was also stated that if anybody found guilty would be discharged from the job.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Self_Appraisal_Report - Assignment Example The assessment has been made in accordance with theories provided by research scholars regarding the benefits of work based learning and the skills obtained from this process which will help an individual to secure a better job. The report also highlights the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s future plans in terms of the developments that are yet to be made in order to enhance his/her skills. Following that suitable conclusions and recommendations have been made. Table of Contents Summary 2 Introduction 4 Self-Appraisal 4 Skills and Experience relevant to my career goals 6 Future Plans 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 7 Reference List 8 Introduction Over the past few decades, the field of education and occupational learning has witnessed a shift of regime. There has been a significant change in how students and policy makers perceive higher education and the role of universities. The idea of enrolling in a university to become intellectually enlightened has been replaced with the idea that the pr imary objective of higher education is to serve the industry (Huq and Gilbert, 2012). The fundamental of work based learning (WBL) is based upon the fact that individuals will thrive to understand the meaning of theory and thereafter attain wisdom through real life experience. This is also known as experiential learning. WBL is of utmost importance which helps an individual to be self directed, competent, self managing, constructive, reflective and autonomous who will be able to extract and articulate the meaning of learning from their everyday routine of work. As such this report will primarily involve a self assessment of the researcher on the basis of the internship that the researcher underwent and thereby highlighting the importance of internship and work based learning and the outcomes from them. In addition to that, the self assessment of the researcher will also describe personal skills and experience possessed by the researcher prior to the internship and how those implemen ted and what additional skills and experiences were earned. Based on the points explained, a suitable conclusion will be reached as to how important is work based learning/internship to the modern day education system and recommendations will also be made regarding the changes that are required, if any, in order to bring upon improvement in this system of education. Self-Appraisal As has been explained by Gault, Redington and Schlager (2010), work based education also referred to as experiential education, plays a crucial role in shaping lives of undergraduates thereby enhancing their preparation in order to achieve success in the entry level job market. It provides a means by which both students and faculties can bridge the gap between the career expectations developed during classroom tutorial and the reality of employment in the field of work. Similar conclusion has been presented by Gault, Leach and Duey (2010), who also highlighted the importance of experiential learning. They explained that, experiential education is of paramount importance at the initial stages of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s career thereby uplifting the prospect of employment candidates in job market. Similar theories have been outlined by Bridgstock (2009). Having the same belief, as has been explained by the authors mentioned above; I also enrolled for an internship in order to undergo the experiential learning process while pursuing my degree education. My job title was that of a
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Cultural Manifestation Via A Game Of Street Basketball Essay Two hoops, ten players, one basketball court and one leather ball to dribble, pass, shoot and score points with. The other aspects of basketball Ã¢â¬â the rules, the technicalities Ã¢â¬â are all fluid and bent by the whims and preferences of the existing culture, even the existing playing teams. Street basketball may not be the roots of the sport, but through the years, it has becoming both the foundation of professional basketball as well as the avenue for the exercise of the growing subculture in street basketball. Ballard (2004) elaborates: Within the caged confines amidst the bohemian community of Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan can be found the essence of street basketball: all the grit, showmanship, competition, and spectacle that make the game great (pg 35). To those who are not indoctrinated in the culture of street basketball, it is easy to say that what they see being played on the street and what they see flashing on their television monitors are both the same game of basketball; that they share so many similar attributes and that the only thing different in street basketball compared to collegiate or professional basketball is the level of popularity. But that is far from the truth Ã¢â¬â because those who know and understand street basketball, those who lived and breathed street basketball, those who bled and literally died in the cement floors of the street basketball courts know that what they do where they do it is so much different from what high salaried pro basketball players do in the NBA. They have different stages where they play; they have different rules as well as different ways of enforcing it; they have different cultures and different reasons why they play basketball. The only thing they have in common is that they all want that leather and rubber spheroid up in the air and then inside the rim, swooshing the net that makes a catcall for such a sexy swing. Professional basketball is all about winning the coveted Ã¢â¬ËringÃ¢â¬â¢, about being able to parade around town like rockstars and hoist that championship trophy alongside guys who you might be elbowing the following season. In professional basketball, there is a certain convenience for players and team owners to just move from one team to another because it is just a job for them, but on the street, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s alliance to a basketball team is a binding oath; jumping to another team is never about the job of getting the Ws and finishing the season with the Ã¢â¬ËringÃ¢â¬â¢, and most players who see a former teammate desert them always take it personal, because street basketball is never a job. It is a brotherhood where loyalty is the most expensive and most important aspect of a player, and those who sell it cheap will always have a Ã¢â¬Ëlow market valueÃ¢â¬â¢. Street basketball and professional basketball have different set of ethos Ã¢â¬â in street basketball, they play for their teamÃ¢â¬â¢s pride and for the wager while in professional basketball, they play for their own personal pride and for their own personal salary, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era when even the best of players are traded to other teams in exchange for the chance of the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s long term vision to take shape. In street basketball, it is always here and now, every game feels like the last game, and it is hard to go home with a monkey on your back because when you lost, you did not just part with some of your money, you also parted with some ounces of self respect and the respect of the people in the neighborhood about you, your team and your game. Observing and analyzing human behavior Ã¢â¬â Like every cultural vestige and like every subculture type, included in the consideration for the analysis of certain cultural practices is the assessment of human behavior. In street basketball, there are also a set of prevailing human behavior and the dictating factors on why such patterns exist, appear and persist. The manifestation of these sets and patterns of human behavior inside street basketball is two-pronged; those which the average eyes can see and those which only the trained eyes can detect happen simultaneously. It is both reflected and hidden in the way they dress, in the way they talk and in the way they play the game. The human behavior patterns in street basketball depict that of the prehistoric tribes Ã¢â¬â it requires that only the fittest with the toughest set of behaviors survive. And what are these behaviors? The behavior in fighting, in negotiating, in people management and control of power all of these behaviors are essential for a person to survive the culture of street basketball. Without some of these behaviors, the individual is forced outside the circle of street basketball. Players fight for their place to be among those who are considered as respected basketball players in the street. Outside the five-on-five, there are those who wield similar power, clout and influence Ã¢â¬â those who fix wagers, those who tap, harness and control budding talents and those who are present in the circuit for their own socio-political reasons. One needs only to sit down by the bleachers and take a good look around to see the abundance of a diverse set of human behavior present inside one confined yet open spaced rectangular domain of street basketball. African American guys play with white guys and vice versa, and so does the relationship of those who have different ethnic descent, and this reflects the behavior of the individuals inside street basketball when it comes to ethnic sensitivity. Other easily discernable behaviors found in street basketball include the penchant of most basketball players for gambling, their obvious disregard for socially accepted behavior while in public like going topless for most of the time, spitting, cursing and the prevalence of foul and derogatory terms hurled at each other, the integration of gang related separatist attitude and the resorting to physical assault as a way to settle differences of avenge any feeling of indignation. Looking at street basketball players, the universal behavior noticeable is their take on street basketball as the end all and be all of their lives Ã¢â¬â they gamble every paper bill they have on the pockets of their pants, sometimes, even money that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have, on a round of street basketball without serious regard for what will happen in the future in the event that they lose their bet; most of them would rather spend their days playing ball and cementing their hold among their peers and their social cliques, which sometimes result in the creation of strong bonds of brotherhood between two persons or among members of a group or the creation of intensive animosity as well; school is never an equally important priority, and the preference for the type of work they would engage on is similar on how they battle, win and lost in street basketball Ã¢â¬â exciting, thrilling and promises the yield of a quick buck.. Street basketball is a religion, while professional basketball is a mere day job for night shift dribblers, and the rituals that are involved in the daily exercise of their faith exists in different aspects Ã¢â¬â there are rituals of battle, rituals of praise, rituals done to ask for intercession and divine intercession as well as the rituals for both the victorious and the defeated. At some point, the Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ësports-basedÃ¢â¬â¢ religion meets in the middle, when religion is infused in the practice of a competitive sport, because there is one ultimate human behavior that is manifested greatly in street basketball Ã¢â¬â and that is the desire to win, because winning is always more than the scorebook statistics; it is about winning wagers and bets, winning the respect of the crowd as well as the opponents and winning your own sense of self respect towards yourself. A sports activity is a particular cultural event, and like any other cultural event, st reet basketball is unique in different places. But despite these differences, this cultural event shares the same characteristic Ã¢â¬â and that is this: that it is the showcasing of the most primitive instinct that is present among humans inside the society; it is a display of skill, grace, strength and the set of values to which a person will be remembered for; it is a reminder of how fiercely competitive the world is, how one should earn everything with his bare hands standing on his own two feet alone. Street basketball speaks a lot about a placeÃ¢â¬â¢s culture; pro basketball is plain entertainment. Works Cited: Ballard, Chris. Ã¢â¬Å"Hoops Nation: A Guide to Americas Best Pickup Basketball. Ã¢â¬ University of Nebraska Press, October 2004.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Effect of Social Media on Social Movements The new media platforms, such as social networking sites, have benefited from the internet that has made globalization real. Apart from giving the minority group an opportunity to achieve larger public acknowledgment, it also offers them a chance for self-expression. To begin with, media acts as a mode through which information is transferred to a large group of people. In the process, it constructs and outlines the public opinion on different societal matters. Minority groups, such as women, LGBT, disabled people, and immigrants, have had hardly solved challenges since their voices are unheard due to stereotypes in the society. (Castells) States that one important characteristic of the new platforms of media is that it is digital, and this avails it all parts of the world. New media has given the minority groups equal access to global affairs. The history of womens rights started in the 1960s where women fought for suffrage rights, inclusion in state positions, and other equality rights. Nonetheless, women rights have been violated across the world. Evidently, women hardly get the same platforms to express themselves as men do. Gender inequalities occur because of societal norms and stereotypes placed on a particular group of people due to their gender orientation; women in this case (ReifovÃ ¡ and Tereza). Fortunately, through new media platforms, women from different cultures have been able to fight for their rights. In this regard, online media has proved to be an essential tool in raising awareness on several women issues in different societies. Women have used this platform to advance their fight for their rights up to international levels. Mainly, social media has been used by several groups of women to push for accountability on activities related to women rights violation. Currently, social media platforms like Fa cebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and others have helped women to raise gender consciousness, organize equality campaigns, share ideas, and participate in policy development on gender-related issues (Chetkow-Yanoov). These women networks have brought changes to countries like India, Kenya, Brazil, Egypt and Saudi Arabia among others. Several online campaigns have proved useful in the fight for human rights in countries that violence against women is rampant. For instance, Egyptian women have had to go through sexual harassment for a long time, but this has changed ever since campaigns like #MeToo were launched through Twitter as a new media platform (ReifovÃ ¡ and Tereza). This campaign was meant to let women share their experiences and tell the world about their plight. The campaigns paid off since the government introduced a law against sexual harassment and women could take legal action against their oppressors. Another example of such movements in Egypt was a Facebook campaign called Ã¢â¬Å"Mat3brhashÃ¢â¬ . This campaign was started by Egyptian women to resist violence and harassment that they experience in the country. The campaign has drawn the attention of various organizations throughout the world and can be considered as an attempt to confront women harassment in Egypt. Similarly, Saudi Arabia has been battling gender inequality due to the conservatism nature form their culture and religion. In their case, the impact of social media on the right of women to drive in Saudi Arabia cannot be underestimated. For instance, Saudi Arabian women activists have managed to battle equality challenges by using media to highlight their experience. For instance, in 2011, on the wave of the Arab Spring, which led to political reforms, the Women2drive movement was formed. Activist Manal al-Sharif played a prominent role in it: she conducted propaganda in Facebook, laying out videos in which she showed her skills in machine control. Al-Sharif was later arrested. In another instance, in 2014, a human rights activist, Loujain al-Hathloul, drove a car to a territory of Saudi Arabia in protest against the law banning women from driving vehicles in Saudi Arabia. She was arrested and detained in police custody for close to three months. Women from the Saudi Arabia conducted several campaigns on social networks demanding the right to drive cars. Previously, only men could get a drivers license. In case a woman was seen driving in a public place, police officers could arrest her. Following a public outcry, such bans have been lifted. After the government allowed women to drive, to obtain the rights of women in Saudi Arabia does not even require the permission of male relatives, which is still necessary when getting a passport, crossing the border, and marrying. Equally, the #BringBackOurGirls was created in Nigeria to campaign for the release of schoolgirls who Boko Haram, a militia group in the country, abducted. This NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s abduction of students made the world come together to facilitate the release of the girls. Fortunately, some of the girls were rescued. LGBT groups of people have been depicted differently in media throughout history. Before the 20th century, the LGBT community has had negative representation by the media (Castells). It was portrayed as a perversion or even crime. However, this has changed significantly through new media and recently many countries like the US legalizing it. Mainly using social media, the LGBT community has made it their responsibility to make them known and define their culture. The positive representation has served to make the community acceptable within the society, and several people are giving them the necessary support (Alston and Knuckey). Recent years have seen the increase of LGBT community in TV shows, dramas, and others. This representation whether positive or mirroring the stereotypes in the society has helped impart knowledge about this minority group to the people (Castells). However, the transgender people have not had proper representation as compared to the gays, lesbians, and bisex uals. Notably, the transgender group has not been in public light as long as the others, and they have to face their challenges in order to triumph. Currently, the important thing is that media coverage of events and issues related to the rights and self-esteem of homosexuals has improved the publicity of the LGBT groups. For instance, homosexuals and lesbians are treated differently than ethnic, religious, or other social minorities. A notable example of an LGBT is Caitlyn Jenner, who formerly identified herself as a male. Caitlyn Jenner, once called Bruce Jenner, was an American television character and a former Olympic gold medal frontrunner in decathlete. Jenner has been using social media to fight for the rights of the transgender people. In 2015, she came out as a trans-woman having battled gender dysphoria from her youth. Due to her moves to fight for the rights of the transgender people in the society, Caitlyn, as a media celebrity, has made people become more accepting of the LGBT group lately. Another minority group that is worth analyzing is people with various disabilities, both physical and mental. Those with disabilities have not had it easy in history. They have been an easy target by people who seek to take advantage of them. Due to their disability, they are not able to carry out certain tasks and thus are vulnerable to accept help from not so trustworthy individuals. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"disability is not inabilityÃ¢â¬ has been going around for some time now and the phrase is meant to let the public realize that the disabled can also live a normal life and participate in activities that were thought to be impossible for them. Through media, the stereotyping is slowly dying as the disabled community are proving themselves capable to the world. The same way other people try to make life easier by innovation, the handicapped life can also be made easier through assistance using technology. At some point in history, the deaf were considered passive members of the socie ty (ReifovÃ ¡ and Tereza). However, this has significantly changed through media. The deaf can participate in discussions through social media without requiring interpreters and such assistance. An example of a disability person who fights for the rights of this group is Judy Heumann, who is an American activist for the disability community. She has been a civil rights campaigner for handicapped people who use social media to foster her course. Another example is Wade Blank, an American disability activist. Using new media platforms, he has been leading campaigns on national rights for the disabled people. Blank heads Ã¢â¬Å"American Disabled Attendant Programs Today Ã¢â¬Å"ADAPTÃ¢â¬ and has been lobbying make public places easily reached by the disabled people. Digital communication provided by new media platforms has been helpful in making life easier for migrants. The social media has given the migrants the opportunities they did not have before. Migrants currently can participate in political as well as social life in both country of origin and the country they reside in (Castells). In fact, the migrants are able to get a clearer perspective of the happenings in their home countries. The migrants can exchange information through social media with their friends and families that still are in their home countries. The exchange of information makes it possible to bring social and political change in those countries. Websites like Kginfo.ru and Tajmigrant.com are used in Russia by new migrants to communicate to their original governments in order to provide them with strategies of being incorporated in their new country. Overall, in the recent times, mass communication/the media has become one of the most important instruments of influence on society, especially on matters of immigration. Media portrayal of challenges that immigrants face in their lives affects their status and social rights. Overall, a vivid representative of the ideological influence in the mass media, that disseminates various behavior patterns imposes standards and dictates life patterns. Which, with prolonged perception, have a significant impact on the modern society, especially on the minority groups, such as the women, LGBT, immigrants, and the disabled people. The new media platforms alone cannot solve the minority groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems. However, the power it has, with regard to fueling reforms, is great. Through social media, laws have been amended, and so many more movements have been created to fight for the rights of the minority groups in various quarters. Different minority groups have different challenges and there use of new media can sometimes lead to uncommon results. The majority people create the notion of a minority group, and so the change can be affected when their perspectives change. Together with authoritative bodies, media can be employed to impart knowledge and shape the perspective the majority have of minority groups in order to bring social change. Works Cited Alston, Philip, and Sarah Knuckey. The Transformation of Human Rights Fact-Finding. Oxford University Press, 2016 Castells, Manuel. Networks of outrage and hope: Social movements in the Internet age. Polity Press, 2012. Chetkow-Yanoov, B Harold. Social Work Approaches to Conflict Resolution: Making Fighting Obsolete. Routledge, 2013. ReifovÃ ¡, Irena, and Tereza PavlÃ ckovÃ ¡. Media, Power and Empowerment: Central and Eastern European Communication and Media Conference Ceecom Prague 2012.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Leadership Definition There are lots of definitions and interpretations for the term LEADERSHIP. One is Ã¢â¬Å"A relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other peopleÃ¢â¬ (Mullins, L.J. 2002, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, FT Publishing, p904). Another popular definition would be, Ã¢â¬Å"the process of influencing an organization or groups within an organization in its efforts towards achieving a goalÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2005, Exploring Corporate Strategy, 7th Edition, FT Prentice Hall, p.519) Leadership Theories on Behaviour To me, leaders are constantly surrounding us. People constantly need to be led and they seek out individuals around them who have personalities that stand out Ã¢â¬â the basic qualities of leadership, the Great Man Theory. This could be in terms of their appearance, knowledge, charisma, behaviour or style. For example, popular actors/actresses might not be great leaders but they influence the thoughts of people through advertisements through their appearance and charisma. Leadership is also a process where trust of people needs to be gained and established before followers are doing things willingly and without having to use pressure. Managers are different in this aspect, as they are given authority/power and trust factor might not be required to actively participate in management, subordinates might not be performing their tasks willingly. The above idea is adopted from the most recent leadership definition by Manfred Kets de Vries, he defines leadership style as the point of int eraction between the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s character, the followerÃ¢â¬â¢s character and the situation. (Manfred Kets de Vries, The Leadership Mystique, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001) To gain peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, the first steps is to communicate, Warren Bennis observed the significance of rhetoric and eloquent, Ã¢â¬Å"Effective leaders put words to the formless longings and deeply felt needs of others. They create communities out of words.Ã¢â¬ (Bennis Warren, An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesly, 1993) The Traits theory, otherwise known as the Great Man theory, is the origination of leadership theories. This theory believes that there is a unique set of qualities for a leader, mainly: his intelligence and ability to judge, his knowledge power, self-confidence and dependabil... ...and Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, FT Publishing Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2005, Exploring Corporate Strategy, 7th Edition, FT Prentice Hall Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Manfred Kets de Vries, The Leadership Mystique, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Bennis Warren, An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesly, 1993 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Steven F. Hayward, Churchill on Leadership, 1997, ICS Press Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Blake and Mouton (1964) Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã McgregorÃ¢â¬â¢s X and Y theory (1987) Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Leadership styles, 2002, Tony Kippenberger Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Human Resource Management, Derek Torrington, Laura Hall & Stephen Taylor, 5th Edition, 2002 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership Style by Dr Geoffrey Megargee http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/hitler_commander_01.shtml Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Secrets of Leadership: Hitler and Churchill by Andrew Roberts http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/hitler_churchill_01.shtml Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Adolf Hitler http://www.remember.org/guide/Facts.root.hitler.html Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Hitler as he believes himself to be http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/oss-profile-01.html Leadership Definition Essay -- Definition Leader Leading Leadership Es Leadership Definition There are lots of definitions and interpretations for the term LEADERSHIP. One is Ã¢â¬Å"A relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other peopleÃ¢â¬ (Mullins, L.J. 2002, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, FT Publishing, p904). Another popular definition would be, Ã¢â¬Å"the process of influencing an organization or groups within an organization in its efforts towards achieving a goalÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2005, Exploring Corporate Strategy, 7th Edition, FT Prentice Hall, p.519) Leadership Theories on Behaviour To me, leaders are constantly surrounding us. People constantly need to be led and they seek out individuals around them who have personalities that stand out Ã¢â¬â the basic qualities of leadership, the Great Man Theory. This could be in terms of their appearance, knowledge, charisma, behaviour or style. For example, popular actors/actresses might not be great leaders but they influence the thoughts of people through advertisements through their appearance and charisma. Leadership is also a process where trust of people needs to be gained and established before followers are doing things willingly and without having to use pressure. Managers are different in this aspect, as they are given authority/power and trust factor might not be required to actively participate in management, subordinates might not be performing their tasks willingly. The above idea is adopted from the most recent leadership definition by Manfred Kets de Vries, he defines leadership style as the point of int eraction between the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s character, the followerÃ¢â¬â¢s character and the situation. (Manfred Kets de Vries, The Leadership Mystique, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001) To gain peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, the first steps is to communicate, Warren Bennis observed the significance of rhetoric and eloquent, Ã¢â¬Å"Effective leaders put words to the formless longings and deeply felt needs of others. They create communities out of words.Ã¢â¬ (Bennis Warren, An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesly, 1993) The Traits theory, otherwise known as the Great Man theory, is the origination of leadership theories. This theory believes that there is a unique set of qualities for a leader, mainly: his intelligence and ability to judge, his knowledge power, self-confidence and dependabil... ...and Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, FT Publishing Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2005, Exploring Corporate Strategy, 7th Edition, FT Prentice Hall Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Manfred Kets de Vries, The Leadership Mystique, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Bennis Warren, An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesly, 1993 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Steven F. Hayward, Churchill on Leadership, 1997, ICS Press Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Blake and Mouton (1964) Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã McgregorÃ¢â¬â¢s X and Y theory (1987) Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Leadership styles, 2002, Tony Kippenberger Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Human Resource Management, Derek Torrington, Laura Hall & Stephen Taylor, 5th Edition, 2002 Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership Style by Dr Geoffrey Megargee http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/hitler_commander_01.shtml Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Secrets of Leadership: Hitler and Churchill by Andrew Roberts http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/hitler_churchill_01.shtml Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Adolf Hitler http://www.remember.org/guide/Facts.root.hitler.html Ã¯Æ'ËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Hitler as he believes himself to be http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/oss-profile-01.html
Enemy at the Gates Cast: Jude Law, Joseph Fiennes, Rachel Weisz, Bob Hoskins, Ed Harris, Ron Perlman, Gabriel Thomson Written by: Jean-Jacques Annaud and Alain Godard Directed by: Jean-Jacques Annaud Running Time: 131 minutes Synopsis: Enemy at the Gates was inspired by a true story and set against the siege of Stalingrad during World War II. This is the tale of a young Russian sharpshooter, Vassili, who becomes a legend by shooting numerous high-ranking German officials. When his friend, Danilov, a soviet political officer, realizes the propaganda value in Vassili's skill as a sniper and makes him the hero of his propaganda campaign and the hero of Russia with the help of Khrushchev, who was sent by Stalin to oversee the Russian effort. Stalin ordered that the city not fallÃ¢â¬ ¦whatever the cost. It was a battle that the Russians had to win. To not overcome would have meant the complete collapse of Russia and its ultimate takeover by the German forces after Russia had already lost numerous battles to the Germans. So thousands of poorly trained and ill-equipped (many actually unarmed) Soviet troops were poured into battle, motivated by Russian security forces who followed with orders to kill anyone who might try to flee or retreat. Russia was in need for a hero. The Germans outnumbered in men and weapons compared to Russia. Everyday numerous Russians were being killed, either by Germans bullets or Russian. Vassili gave the Soviet troops the courage and bravery to fight despite the overwhelming odds. The friendship between Danilov and Vassili is threatened when Danilov become jealous of the man he created and he too falls in love with an attractive, and intelligent female soldier, Tania. As the battle for the city continues, Vassili faces his ultimate challenge when the Nazi command dispatches its the best marksman of the German army, Major Konig, to hunt down and kill the man who has become the hope of all Russia. Though out the movie they remain in a cat and mouse chase both showing extreme patience and skill and setting traps for each other. While Sasha, a young Russian boy, passes between the Russian and German camps passing information to Major Koenig by bribes and using Sasha as bait and then passes information to the Russians. From this Sasha gets hung by Major Koenig, upsetting Vassili and Tania because Sasha was so close to them. When Tania and Vassili go to tell his mother what has happened Tania is was hit with shrapnel.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Grapes of Wrath2 In the Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck uses intercalary chapters to provide background for the various themes of the novel, as well to set the tone of the novel". The turtle is a metaphor for the working class farmers whose stories and struggles are recounted in The Grapes of Wrath. In Chapter 3, the turtle plods along dutifully, but is consistently confronted with danger and setbacks. Significantly, the dangers posed to the turtle are those of modernity and business. It is the intrusion of cars and the building of highways that endanger the turtle. The truck that strikes it is a symbol of big business and commerce. Ã¢â¬Å"The turtle entered a dust road and jerked itself along, drawing a wavy shallow trench in the dust with its shellÃ¢â¬ (pg 21) shows that the Joad family that will soon be introduced will experience similar travails as the turtle, as they plod along wishing only to survive, yet are brutally pushed aside by corporate interests. Chapter 7, another intercalary chapter critiques yet another part of the business system. The owners of the car dealerships mean solely to exploit impoverished buyers. They do not profit from selling cars that will last, but rather from finding the most ill-used vehicle, giving it the appearance of reliability, and pawning it off on desperate farmers wishing to get to California. There is no compassion in the car sales, but rather a perpetual cycle of exploitation. This indicates what the Joad family must certainly have experienced to get their car to go west, yet places it in a larger context. The chapter makes it clear that they are not the only family to experience this. As the Joad family faces the same trials that the turtle faces, and as the desperate farmers have to deal with car dealerships, the intercalary chapters help to set the tone of, as well as integrate the various themes of The
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Skeeter Buck has had 4 years of joint pain with some very severe occasions. He complains of stiffness in his wrists, hands, knees, and feet. The stiffness seems to last anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 hours in the morning. When his joints are sore he is very unstable and feels as though he has no balance. The joint pain does not occur on a regular basis but when it does, he tends to lose his appetite. Medication: Cortisone shot (every 3 months), Aleve, Tylenol Medical History: 4 years of joint pain. Recently symptoms worsened. Family History: Grandmother and mother have rheumatoid arthritis and have had surgery. Grandma had a hip replacement and his mother had a knee replacement. Most of his family is overweight but there is no history of diabetes or heart disease. Social Lifestyle: Married with 2 children and wife is pregnant with their third. Lives in North Bay where he is the manager at a bank. He walks with a cane when his Ã¢â¬Ëflare upsÃ¢â¬â¢ are bad. Lifestyle History: Enjoys playing with the kids. He is as active as he can be without being in pain. He helps coach the hockey team his oldest son plays on. Wife is a dietician and so he eats healthy meals on a regular basis. Risk Factors: He is a non-smoker, regular cholesterol levels, and normal blood glucose levels. Physical Examination General Appearance: Looks healthy, comfortable and has great colour in face. Vital Signs: Blood Pressure = 123/82 mmHg in both arms, Pulse = 72 beats per minute, Respiration= 17 breaths per minute, Mass= 82 kg, Height = 70 in. (175 cm), BMI= 27, Waist Circumference = 34in. Cardiovascular: No carotid bruits, no jugular venous distension, clear lungs, normal point of impulse, regular rate and rhythm, no extra heart sounds, no edema, normal peripheral vascular exam. Skin: no rashes, a bit red, swollen and warm around knuckles on hands and feet. Musculoskeletal: walks slow due to pain, joints on the hands and feet are a bit swollen, does not have a full range of motion in his joints. Neurologic: Normal cranial nerves, loss of fine motor skills in hand, normal sensory exam. Resting Electrocardiogram before Exercise Test: Sinus rhythm, rate= 72 beats per minute, no Q waves, ST or T wave abnormalities. Computer interpretation is normal electrocardiogram. Diagnosis: Rheumatoid arthritis in wrists, hands, knees, and feet causing stiffness in the morning and pain throughout the day especially after more than normal use of the joints. This causes exercise intolerance and fatigue. Plan Complete a standard cycle ergometer test and initiate a training program focussing on increasing exercise tolerance, muscle strength, and range of motion. ** Please refer to following pages for pre-screen and informed consent forms! ** PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of inflammatory arthritis and an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is one where the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system becomes confused and begins to attack its own body. In rheumatoid arthritis the target of the immune attack is the lining of the joints (synovial) and sometimes other internal organs. This causes swelling, pain, inflammation, and joint destruction. Inflammatory cells release enzymes that can digest bone and cartilage causing limited bone motion. This inflammation of joints usually occurs in a symmetrical and bilateral pattern (what happens on one side of the body, happens on the other). Rheumatoid arthritis is also characterized by aggravations and remissions (periods of time with intensified symptoms followed by period of time with reduced symptoms). Rheumatoid arthritis usually begins slowly, starting with only a few joints and spreading to others over a period of a few weeks to a few months. People with rheumatoid arthritis have impaired exercise tolerance. The disease affects flexibility, biomechanical efficiency, muscle strength, endurance, and speed, which contributes to functional limitations. There are three levels of classifying rheumatoid arthritis disease stages: 1. Acute: reversible signs and symptoms in the joint related to synovitis 2. Chronic: stable but irreversible structural damage brought on by the disease process 3. Chronic with acute exacerbation of joint symptoms: increased pain and decreased range of motion and function often related to overuse or superimposed injury. (3) Figure:(12) Signs and Symptoms of Concern (13)You should see your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms for more than two weeks: Feel unusual pain and stiffness in your joints Pain and stiffness in the morning lasting more than 30-60 minutes before you feel any relief Feel more fatigued than normal Lack of hunger leading to weight loss Importance of Exercise for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Although people with rheumatoid arthritis may be hesitant to exercise due to pain they experience within their joints, current evidence suggests that a significant amount of disability related to the condition occurs from lack of fitness. By not exercising, muscle strength and endurance begins to deteriorate. This weakens the joint and contributes to accelerating the speed or arthritis. By not exercising you are also putting yourself at risk for other chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis. The American College of Sport Medicine outlines three goals for exercise and arthritis. The goals are: 1) preserve or restore range of motion and flexibility around the affected joints; 2) increase muscle strength and endurance to build joint stability; 3) increase aerobic capacity in order to enhance psychological state and decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. (8) Although long term effects of dynamic weight bearing exercise on those with rheumatoid arthritis remains unclear, current data suggests that vigorous exercise may be used to improve joint mobility, muscle strength, and aerobic capacity without causing joint damage (except when there is an acute joint inflammation or uncontrolled systemic disease)(8). Those with rheumatoid arthritis should remember that post exercise discomfort should be expected, but activities causing increased joint pain enduring for greater than two hours post-exercise should be discontinued. As previously mentioned, people with rheumatoid arthritis often have little aerobic capacity due to inactivity, but it has been shown to be a safe and beneficial form of treatment for those who are not experiencing acute symptoms. The American College of Sports Medicine suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis should participate in large muscle activities such as walking, cycling, rowing, swimming, and dance at 60-80% of their peak heart rate or 40-60% VO2max, a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) rating of 11-16, 3-5 days per week for five minute sessions building up to thirty minutes. When working with people with rheumatoid arthritis, it is important to emphasis duration is more important than intensity with goals of increasing VO2max, peak work, and endurance within 4-6 months. It is also important to have at least fifteen minutes of warm-up and cool-down. (8) MEDICATION Although there is no specific cure for rheumatoid arthritis at the present, there are a range of medications available to manage the symptoms to improve the condition. Rheumatoid medications can be classified into different classes such as NSAIDs, Corticosteroids, DMARDs, Biological Agents, Salicylates, and Pain Relief Medications. Your doctor will most likely use a combination of these drugs to alleviate pain and prevent further damage to the joints. NSAIDs NSAIDs or Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are effective in pain relief and inflammation reduction, but do not serve to protect the joints from further damage. NSAIDs prevent your body from producing a substance called prostaglandins, which is primarily responsible for inflammation and pain. When taken in extreme dosages for a long time, these drugs can produce severe side effects, such as stomach bleeding, gastric ulcers, as well as potential damage to the kidneys and liver. Corticosteroids Corticosteroids suppress the immune system, thus managing inflammation. Although these may be very effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, they have been said to trigger adverse side effects if used in prolonged periods. Examples of these side effects include easy bruising, glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, excessive weight gain, and thinning of the bones. DMARDs DMARDS or Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs are groups of medications that serve to inhibit the immune system from damaging the joints, thus slowing further joint damage. Rheumatoid arthritis causes permanent joint damage in the early stages and so it is very important to start these medications right away. The risks for severe side effects are high with these medications. Taking DMARDs for a long time may result in bone marrow and liver toxicity, vulnerability to infections, skin allergies, and autoimmunity. Biological Agents Biological agents or biological drugs function to alleviate inflammation via various methods. An example of how they work is by inhibiting tumour necrosis factors. They also can treat inflammation through eradicating Beta cells. Salicylates Salicylates reduce the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s production of prostaglandins. The use of salicylates has been replaced with NSAIDs, mainly due to the fact that they caused adverse side effects. Pain Relief Medications While anti-pain drugs neither decrease inflammation nor suppress further joint damage, these medications allow the individual become more comfortable and eventually function better. (2) PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL To determine baseline levels and the areas exercise is in need of improvement, exercise testing can be used to evaluate the different exercise parameters. Those with rheumatoid arthritis tolerate sub-maximal and subjective symptom-limited treadmill tests that require less than 3 miles per hour walking speed. Early-onset muscle fatigue may limit receiving accurate information. Since people with rheumatoid arthritis may have troubles performing maximal treadmill test, sub-maximal bicycle tests may provide more accurate information without over-stressing joints.
Monday, September 16, 2019
1. What are the advantages of a small business going international through incremental stages rather than as a global start up? There are many advantages of a small business going international through incremental stages, rather than as a global start up. First of all a startup that utilizes the small business stage model where it has an incremental process of internationalization gives that them a much larger chance of sustainability and success, rather than trying to start large which puts them at more risk. This usually occurs passively, where a small business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t solicit international business, but eventually conducts business internationally by filling normal orders, and as the business grows and receives more orders, they also increase the amount of international business they conduct. In the small business stage model of internationalization there are six typical stages that a company goes through. These are: * Stage 1 Ã¢â¬â Passive exporting * Stage 2 Ã¢â¬â Export Management * Stage 3 Ã¢â¬â Export Department * Stage 4 Ã¢â¬â Sales Branch * Stage 5 Ã¢â¬â Production Abroad * Stage 6 Ã¢â¬â The Transnational These stages transition a small business from merely filling international orders that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t solicited, to seeking out export sales, to using significant resources to increase sales which creates a high enough demand to open local sales offices, which leads to production abroad and then finally developing a global network and the company becoming a transnational corporation. The benefit of a company going through these incremental steps to develop its international business is based upon the company having a strong domestic customer base within their business system. Having a strong domestic business allows the small business to have a solid foundation of revenue which allows them to not have to rely on their international business to survive. This mitigates the risks from having the liabilities of smallness, which are the challenges facing a small business in getting access to necessary resources to internationalize. By having a strong business domestically, those challenges and risks can be taken as the survival of the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t depend on obtaining those resources to internationalize. Another benefit of a company going through incremental steps is that they also have the small business advantage. This advantage is from fast moving entrepreneurs that can use their competitive advantage of speed. Being first to market, they can capture significant sales before large competitors react. This allows a small business to adapt to market changes as they go international and allows them to more competitive as they expand into international markets. Companies can quickly change products, advertisements and operations to be able to meet the needs of the international market which is usually done with evolving technologies. This is where the larger corporate competitors are slowing as there are usually many policies and procedures that must be adhered to that slows them down, and makes them either late to the market with the change or they miss it all together. This is extremely important not just in established international markets, but also emerging and new international markets. Furthermore, reaching customers by teaming up with foreign partners such as distributors, joint venture partners, or licensees is another benefit. By working with these partners who are in direct contact with customers is of utmost importance, as they have a direct line to the point of sale. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not easy to find partners, but by incrementally going international and growing a business, the resources also grow and opens up many more points of contact. As the business grows and these points of contacts grow, the possibility for partners grows as well. Some of the ways a small business can find these partners are through trade shows, catalog expositions, international advertising agencies and consulting firms, government sponsored trade missions and of course direct contact. These partners are a great help in getting a small businessÃ¢â¬â¢ products further into the international market and in the hands of their customers. It is not impossible for a company to go global from the first day that they start their business, but the odds are not in their favorite. It is very difficult to start out targeting such a large market. It is much easier for a small business to start domestically and build up a solid foundation for their business to gradually expand into the international market. This sets up a small business for the best chance for success to go from a small company and turning it into a corporation. Resources Cullen, John B., and K. Praveen Parboteeah. Multinational Management Ã¢â¬â A Strategic Approach. 5th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
It has to pays debts and place orders of other departments inside its business. It tells the other departments of how much money is available to them and also gives advice. Such as if the Ã¢â¬ËMarketing and SalesÃ¢â¬â¢ department of Tesco are going to spend 600 on a new TV advert and the finance department think thatÃ¢â¬â¢s far to much money, then they would tell the department and would probably suggest something else if it is urgent. The financial staff are responsible for controlling the money and to make sure that departments donÃ¢â¬â¢t over-spend. All the senior managers receive help from the finance department when they are making major decisions on expenditure because the finance department donÃ¢â¬â¢t want them to make a huge mistake. This is because all bills have to be paid by the finance department. The level of sales is the starting point for setting the budget, which is why finance have to keep close links with Ã¢â¬ËSalesÃ¢â¬â¢. Sales staff would expect finance to generate standard paperwork (invoices, statements etc) when they make a sale on credit. They would want finance to tell them if an existing customer is a bad payer and tell them the credit worthiness of new customers. TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s finance department may receive a call from Ã¢â¬ËMarketingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã asking if they want to offer extra discount or different conditions to a particular customer in order to secure a sale.Ã The employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ wages or salaries are paid by the finance department. If anyone wants to ask or discuss anything about them then they have to contact the finance department. Some of TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s stores may need some extra workers for particular jobs. Before they hire any, they need to ask the finance department if the business has money and that it can afford the cost. If the money is not available then the finance department may have to tell the Ã¢â¬ËHuman ResourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ department that no more staff can be hired. There can even be cases inside Tesco when the finance department have to tell the Ã¢â¬ËHuman ResourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ department to reduce the number of staff in order to save some money.Ã The Ã¢â¬ËAdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢ department make so many phone calls and print out so many letters, they may be told by the finance department to make less international calls. If the printer breaks down the department may be told to buy a cheap one because there may not be enough money for a good one, or because the department may be over-spending. Finance has to pay for the goods that different functions have bought. The amount that each department spends need to be up to the agreed budget. Each department have to submit invoices for whatever it buys. The Ã¢â¬ËProductionÃ¢â¬â¢ department of Tesco may submit invoices for the raw materials it may have purchased. The finance department has to raise money for Ã¢â¬ËProductionÃ¢â¬â¢. A department has to be very careful that it does not go over budget because if it does it may face problems since its future orders may get rejected by the finance department. When goods from a departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s order arrive it is the job of that departmentÃ to check that everything is correct and is working properly. This is what the finance department expect from all the departments. However, if bills are not paid that department that ordered the goods wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be blamed because they are dependant on finance to pay the bills. If some of the food items of Tesco have not been delivered because the previous bill didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get paid the production department as well as the customers would suffer because of the finance department. The finance department has to record the sales of products that Tesco sells. This shows that it is involved with sales too. The finance department also expects accounts to be kept by all departments so that it can be able to calculate profit or loss. Then it will be able to produce the Ã¢â¬ËProfit & Loss AccountÃ¢â¬â¢. This is how the finance function supports and works with all the other departments. It deals with the money matters of the other departments and if it makes any mistakes like forgetting to pay a bill etc, then there can be big problems which would stop the business from becoming more better and successful. These mistakes can create a bad reputation of Tesco even if it is just the finance departments fault. If the finance department wants to try and avoid these mistakes then it has to work with and support the other departments effectively.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Behavioral finance is a study which involves the influence of psychology on the attitudes and behavior of investors and its subsequent effects on the markets. Behavioral Studies is still in its development stages, but it is instrumental in determining/ explaining as to why or how markets might be inefficient. The difference between traditional finance and behavioral finance is that traditional finance is based on the following concepts: Ã¢â¬â Investors have rational behavior Ã¢â¬â Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Ã¢â¬â Markets are efficientBehavioral finance on the other hand says that, the psychological forces interfere with these concepts. It says that there are both internal and external behavioral obstacles towards the value creation of any company. In practical terms it brings forward the errors in judgments made by both individual investors and fund managers and the various biases to which we as humans are prone. Analyzing this will place us in a position to make dec isions which avoid errors/mistakes committed in the past . INVESTORS: Individual investors: An individual investor is a person who purchases small amounts of securities for him/herself.He is not professionally involved in investment services and whatever purchases he/she makes are on an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length basis. Individual investors are highly regulated because they are thought of as amateurs with little or no knowledge. An individual investor is also known as retail investor or small investor . Professional investor: These investors are usually all those businesses which are involved in giving investment services either directly or indirectly for example, investment companies, mutual funds, investment banks, brokerage houses etc.Besides them professional investors could also be individuals which are professionally involved in giving investment services. Professional investors are also known as institutional investors. These investors are subject to fewer regulations probably becau se they are perceived as having superior knowledge to individual investors . Behavioral biases: Individual and Institutional investors are both prone to almost similar biases, because institutional investors are although organizations in their own right but in actual are lead by a handful of managers.Proponents of this study argue that humans are prone to bias in making their judgments no matter how qualified or experienced they may be. They say that humans make frequent use of heuristics, mental shortcuts/rules of thumb to simplify decisions and tasks that are complex. Availability heuristic: With availability heuristic it is believed that for humans the probability of an event occurring is dependent on how easily one can imagine that event happening. The more clear is the image the greater the probability.A related concept is Illusory correlation which describes we imagine and hence interpret evidence. Although this bias is limited for retail investors since not only their investm ents are smaller but they also donÃ¢â¬â¢t have various charts, patterns analyzing past year data at their disposal, as for institutional investors this bias is at a much more magnified level because many fund managers use charts and technical analysis which according to them helps in identifying various patterns and price/stock moments . Representativeness heuristic:This concept says that humans are prone making judgments that involve consideration of stereo-types instead of the underlying features. For example, while hiring the selection process takes into consideration the qualifications, relevant experience, personality etc. however this in no way can predict the future job performance of the individual. This also incorporates a related concept called Illusion of validity which puts forward that the confidence in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment is primarily based on the representation of the situation instead of the characteristics.However, retail investors are more prone to this bias as compared to institutional investors because they have the information that is available to the general public for example, commentaries from financial journalists, analysts which believe that well known companies are good stock-market investment options, but in reality these two factors are largely unrelated . Anchoring and adjustment: This is another important heuristic according to which decisions made by humans are dependent on some key value/number.There is no process or logic behind determination of this value/number it could be any random number. For example, budgeting which involves use of current figures to determine future estimates. Many fund managers use current year figures and current year industry averages to determine future estimates. This bias is a product of our inherent conservatism which leads to our under reaction to new information. Institutional investors are more prone to this bias as compared to small investors. Probably because the managers of investment c ompanies actively use these techniques to draw conclusions.Small investors would hardly be aware so these techniques however those with an accounting background could be an exception . Loss aversion: It is also a key bias. It is based on the concept that humans find it very difficult to accept loss and the state of denial is such that we infact believe that holding onto it for longer periods of time would turnaround things some way or the other. This bias has some major consequences in financial decision-making. For instance, over the years it has been seen that many companies have kept running loss-making units and destroying shareholder wealth to the level at which it was irreparable.The reasons behind the strength of this bias as scholars put it is the shame and regret and feeling the blame for the loss incurred. Individual investors are more prone to this professional investors, a study revealed that individual investors sell those stocks that start to perform well quite soon an d hang on loss-making stocks for longer periods of time hoping that things might take a u-turn. This problem as professional traders put it is named get evenitis. Hindsight bias: It is based on the concept that humans are prone to that feeling Ã¢â¬Å"I knew it all the whileÃ¢â¬ or precisely hindsight bias.To correct this bias is also very difficult because itÃ¢â¬â¢s natural for us to make differing conclusions regarding what happened in the past even though those decisions would have been correct according to the data and circumstances at hand then. For example, these days since the global economy is in recession even a layman is heard that this was inevitable. Individual investors are prone to this bias out of human nature, as for institutional investors they are less prone to this because they would be having greater access to information all the time .Over-confidence bias: Humans are naturally over-confident about their abilities normally. This further leads to over optimism i. e. we normally feel that we can be successful in most of our endeavors or do the right thing in most of the situations. However in reality that is not possible. Moreover the more information or data one gathers regarding a task, the more that person feels in greater control this is called Illusion of knowledge. Practically the biggest setback that one has to deal with results unfolds is that they are quite different than what was expected.Individual investors are much less prone to this bias as compared to institutional investors which suffer a lot more, because the over-confidence of a team of managers would prove more lethal financially. For example, 3Com which acquired US Robotics in 2000 made an IPO of its division that made the famous Palm pilots. Although the share prices went as high as $165 making 3Com the fourth largest technology firm then but announcement of a forthcoming product without the infrastructure yet in place saw its share prices dramatically fall to $1. 35 in 2001.This financial blunder was a result of a combined over-optimism of the then senior management. INVESTMENT BELIEFS: Characteristics of the Individual investorÃ¢â¬â¢s investment beliefs would be focused on limited aspects probably because they have limited knowledge of the market and they invest smaller amounts as compared to institutional investors. They would probably invest in companies that have good market reputation and which promise a good return within a short span of time. As for institutional investors their investment beliefs would be diverse since they are professionals.It would be important for them to take measures to avoid conflicts of interest. It would also be important for them to develop a clear view of capital markets in order to invest in companies that are expected to yield good returns . CONCLUSION: Behavioral finance has therefore highlighted that financial decision-making of both individual and institutional investors. The errors/mistakes made in yes ter-years both at the individual and organizational level if taken care of in future could result in making sound long-term decisions. WORKS CITED: Blanco. A.Behavioral Finance Possibilities and Limitations of Different Approaches. Wiesbaden, 2003 Fortune. Why CEOs Fail. February 10th 2009 Retrieved from :< http://money. cnn. com/magazines/fortune/>, 1999. Goldberg. J. Behavioral Finance. John Wiley, 2001. Montier. J. Behavioral Finance: Insights into Irrational Minds and Markets. J. Wiley. 2002. Owen. A. S. Behavioral Finance and the Decision to Invest in High Tech Stocks. School of Finance and Economics, University of Technology, 2002 Pompian. M. M. Behavioral Finance and Wealth Management: How to Build Optimal Portfolios That Account for Investor Biases.John Wiley and Sons, 2006. Redhead. K. Personal Finance and Investments: A Behavioral Finance Perspective. Routledge, 2008 Shefrin. H. Behavioral Finance. Edward Elgar Pub, 2001. Shleifer . A. Inefficient Markets: An Introduction to Behavioral Finance. Oxford University Press US, 2000. Stanyer. P, Dimson. E. The Economist Guide to Investment Strategy: How to Understand Markets, Risk, Rewards and Behaviour. Bloomberg Press, 2006. Taffler. J. R. (2001). Management Focus. Thaler. H. R. (1993). Advances in Behavioral Finance. Russell Sage Foundation
Friday, September 13, 2019
Argue that hunting among the Bushman is not merely a physical act, but one that touches, often deeply, every domain of Bushman society and thus promotes social solidarity - Essay Example This paper argues that, in terms of DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of solidarity, the Bushmen utilize hunting not just for obtaining food, but also for deeper domains of their life, specifically marital, religious, and economic customs and rites. Hunting in the Bushmen society influences social status, determines the rituals of religious traditions, and forms duty within extended family units, uniting the people in what Emile Durkheim refers to as Ã¢â¬Ësocial solidarityÃ¢â¬â¢. As stated by Peter Kropotkin (Hann 1993, 27): But still we know that when the Europeans came, the Bushmen lived in small tribes (or clans), sometimes federated together; that they used to hunt in common, and divided the spoil without quarrelling; that they never abandoned their wounded, and displayed strong affection to their comrades. Emile Durkheim claims that traditional societies are bonded together by a type of social cohesion that is rooted in the commonalities of the members, or referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëmechanical solidarityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Komter 2004). The common values within these traditional societies, which are mostly religious in character, create a Ã¢â¬Ëcollective consciousnessÃ¢â¬â¢ for the society, a group of ideas, beliefs, and norms common to everybody (Komter 2004). There is modest individuality because individuals view themselves mainly in connection with their membership in the group. Hunting is still deeply embedded in the culture of Bushmen, even in instances where bands take care of their own cattle and grow their own food. The Bushmen are essentially hunters on the peripheries of the bigger non-Bushman culture. Bushmen are hunters in numerous ways. Gift-giving and kin relations include social Ã¢â¬ËhuntingÃ¢â¬â¢, for family connections and for bonds of exchange. Their spiritual or religious principle is distinguished as Ã¢â¬ËhuntingÃ¢â¬â¢ for knowledge (Hann 1993). It is factual that personal ties and hunting in Bushmen culture are