Saturday, August 31, 2019
1. Between the journal entries from September 10th and 11th, the rat has trapped the scientist by biting the rope while he was in the well, so he is either dead or alive at the bottom of the well. 2. Tayloe was fired because of poison trails leading up to BarneyÃ¢â¬â¢s dish, and in the scientistÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, Tayloe tried to kill the rat because he thought he was getting too smart. The scientist rationalized on this thinking that this was under the influence of alcohol, that the life on the island was too much for him, and that he lost his guinea pigs. 3. The real cause for the dismissal was because the rat tricked the scientist into firing him, by placing poison trails leading up to his dish. Barney needed to get rid of Tayloe for two reasons. The first is Tayloe said Barney was getting too smart, so he was worried he would try and kill him. The second is that Barney was already plotting to kill the scientist, and it would be much easier to do so with Tayloe gone. Foreshadowing of the surprise ending was Ã¢â¬Å"He denied it. Who else then? Ã¢â¬ This would make you think of who would have actually tried to poison Barney of the two of them, even though it was neither. 4. One sample of irony in the second last paragraph is Ã¢â¬Å"I have now replaced that section or rope and arranged some old sacking beneath it to prevent recurrence of the accident. Ã¢â¬ This is ironic because the scientist believed the rope was weathering because of the edge of the masonry, and in trying to fix the problem, he arranged sacking underneath the rope. But this will do no good, as the rat was biting the rope, and later gets him trapped in the well with the same strategy. In the same paragraph, another sample of irony is Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps I should fix myself a sandwich as I may be down there longer than seems likely at the moment. Ã¢â¬ This is ironic because the scientist thinks he will be in the well longer than he hopes. But little does he know, he will be down there for the rest of his short life. In the final paragraph, third sample of irony is Ã¢â¬Å"I sprayned my wrist is why this is written so bad. Ã¢â¬ This is very ironic because this is the rat pretending to be the scientist so that nothing is fishy. But a sprained wrist doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect spelling, may just slur a few words. 5. ? 6. The story is written in journal form because it has to have time between each paragraph. For example, there has to be a gap between the second last and last journal entry, for the point of view to change (scientist to rat). 7. Well, the reultz of my experimentt argh complete. The ratt turned very very smart. The end.
Educational attainment is primarily due to individualÃ¢â¬â¢s goal in life. Attitude likewise has life-transforming power (Harrel, 2003) which must be in equilibrium with aptitude. Though, motivations often are the challenges to excel and achieve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goal. The individualÃ¢â¬â¢s goal in life has been set with the consistent support and management of its parents. This subsequently bore fruition with the development of the attitude necessary towards self-motivation for greater achievements. The figure shows that over all, the Asian race marked an edge on the other races in terms of scholastic achievements. It is notable that the WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ fell within 85. anges on High School Graduate or more, while Asian has 87. 6. This means that the Asian has more focus on high school education than the WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢. Its implication would be that the AsianÃ¢â¬â¢s prioritized education. It is also remarkable that in every educational attainment level the AsiansÃ¢â¬â¢ led overwhelmingly in academic achievements. This is because they got an overall range of 68. 3 and followed by the WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ falling behind within 55. 2 ranges. Commonly, it is not the educational system that has to be modified, but, there must be a program to enhance parental awareness on the relative responsibilities towards childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s academic standing. Gleaning from the social patterns (Williams, 1976) of Asians, it is usual trait as a collective society (Lustig, 1996) for family parental concern towards childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievements. Widespread, parents would tell their children that the best thing that they could have as an inheritance is education. In addition to this, prevale nce of high ranking officials, rich and successful families in third world countries have had gained aggregate education from highly industrialized countries.
Friday, August 30, 2019
A mission statement is a formal short written statement of the purpose of the company or organization. The mission statement should guide the actions of the organization, spell out its over all goal, provide a sense of direction, and guide decision making. It provides the framework or context within which the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies are formulated. A mission statement talks about the present leading towards the future. Your mission statement may change, but it should still tie back to your core values, customer needs and vision. A vision statement takes into account the current status of the organization and serves to point the direction of where the organization wishes to go. As means of setting a central goal that the organization will aspire to reach, the vision statement helps to provide a focus for the mission of the corporation, business or non profit entity. A vision statement talks about your future. As your organization evolves, you might feel tempted to change your vision. However, mission or vision statements explain your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation, so change should be kept to a minimum. What are the functions of mission statement? It lists the broad goals for which the organization is formed. Its prime function is internal; to define the key measure or measures of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success and its prime audience is the leadership, team and stockholders. What are the functions of vision statement? It lists where you see yourself some years from now. It inspires you to give your best. It shapes your understanding of why you are working here Purpose The mission statement guides the day-to-day operations and decision-making of the organization. It helps in tactical planning and Ã¢â¬Å"rallying the troopsÃ¢â¬ around a common near- to medium-term goal. The mission statement helps members of the organization get on the same page on what they should do and how they should do it. The vision statement is, in a sense, loftier. It outlines the worldview of the organization and why it exists. It attractsÃ people Ã¢â¬â not just employees but also customers and vendors Ã¢â¬â who believe in the vision of the organization. What to Include in a Mission Statement When developing a mission statement, it should be seen that the following questions are answered: What do we do today? For whom do we do it? What is the benefit? Features of an effective mission statement are: Purpose and values of the organization What business the organization wants to be in (products or services, market) or who are the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s primary Ã¢â¬Å"clientsÃ¢â¬ (stakeholders) What are the responsibilities of the organization towards these Ã¢â¬Å"clientsÃ¢â¬ What are the main objectives that support the company in accomplishing its mission What to Include in a Vision Statement When developing a vision statement, it should be seen that the following questions are answered: What do we want to do going forward? When do we want to do it? How do we want to do it? Features of an effective vision statement include: Clarity and lack of ambiguity Describing a bright future (hope) Memorable and engaging expression Realistic aspirations, achievable Alignment with organizational values and culture Time bound if it talks of achieving any goal or objective
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Role of the UNWTO within the Global Tourism Industry - Assignment Example Tourism developed through time through the better development of the modes of transport, an increase of wealth, better improvement and exciting ideas of services and facilities as well as the discovery of new destinations which were strategic locations as per the desired intention of the travel.it is one of the fastest growing economic activities globally. The development to tourism has led to employment opportunities and the increase of the economic well- being in various countries. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is an agency of the international organization United Nations; it is the leading international organization in the global travel and tourism industry. It is involved in the better development of travel and tourism industry globally. This is by the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism to all individuals willing to travel to their destination sites. UNWTO comprises of 155 member states, 7 associate members, 2 permanent observers and over 400 affiliate members. The headquarters are based in Madrid, Spain. UNWTO secretariat led by the secretary general is composed of projects dealing with issues such as education, tourism and travel trends and marketing, sustainable development, statistics and the tourism satellite account, destination management, ethics and risks and crisis management. These issues are keenly taken into consideration, and the appropriate measures are taken so as to solve them correctly . United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) works hand-in-hand with various United Nations bodies, private and government organizations in order to fully attain the objective of growth and development of the tourism industry and also attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). UNWTO member states are joined by a global cooperation of tourism organizations where there is the benefit of networking, interactions, business interaction, financial market incline, education and the promotion of universally accessible travel and tourism. UNWTO believes that international tourism is the key to development, prosperity and well- being of the world as this will help in the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which works towards the eradication of poverty and the better development of countries supported by the United Nations.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Fords Advertising Strategy in India - Research Paper Example The Indian economy is growing at a rate of 10% since the last 5 years (Uppal, et al, 2009). Apart from the growing middle class, India also features a strong upper class leading it to the fourth largest country with the highest number of billionaires. This makes India a lucrative market for high-end and premium brands as well. Besides being on the road of economic improvement, India also is a democratic state which encourages foreign direct investment. After a long isolation from international trade, India finally has opened its gates for foreign brands which leave a huge opportunity of the international giant corporations to capture their share of the market (Uppal, et al, 2009). As mentioned above, the high income earners of the country along with the growing middle class constitutes a high overall spending power and this fact makes it one of the most lucrative markets in South Asia and the whole world. In contrast to having a strong appeal to international businesses, India does h ave some factors which put a negative impact on its business environment. One of the problems which India faces is unimpressive law enforcement by the Indian judiciary. This is prevalent predominantly because of resource limitations and long procedures fashioned by corruption. However, in order to keep the consumers safe and to increase their confidence, exclusive courts catering to consumer needs and concerns have begun to be set up (Uppal et al, 2009). The elements which Ford must take care of while designing and executing its advertisements is the target segment which must targeted. As mentioned above, India has a growing economy with majority of a middle class and a high proportion of youth, the brands must be appropriately positioned in order to get the most business out of a segment. This means that a premium brand for example Mustang must not be positioned amongst the middle class as it will not be feasible for the company in terms of revenue. Therefore, considering the busin ess environment of India, the advertisements must have relevance to the lifestyle of the market. This suggests that if the target market does not drink, the advertisement must not show any reference to drinking otherwise, the brand will not have any receptive and relevance to the target market. Besides this, the idea of an advertisement must be in line with the culture and expectations of the audience. In order to be generally acceptable and receptive to the audience, the advertisement must clearly portray the true depiction of the lifestyle of the target market. Be it the fashion, models, lifestyle, language etc, every element of the ad must have a relevance to the target market else the brand will not be accepted and will not sell. 2. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Advertising Industry IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising industry is on the boom. From being a small scale business to a fully fledged industry, the Indian advertisement has become a world in itself. It is now considered as one of the major ind ustries of the tertiary sector of India with worth $6.4 billion. Apart from the traditional print and electronic media, the advertising industry of India is registering enormous growth of the social media. The internet is increasingly becoming an important tool for businesses to sell their product and for the advertisers to market their brands. The fact that the internet has become a marketplace itself has been well adopted by the Indian adverti
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Appreciation and Support of Others - Essay Example My initial feelings were that the children like to interact with visitors that they consider their races. I also thought that all the children professed to Christianity since that was a Christian-dominated area. It happened to be the wrong impression since the orphanage welcomed and appreciated any cultural practice. Social interactions normally bring people together to share their skills and ideas with others. For instance, sports enhances social interactions between individuals from distant places, who observe diverge religious and cultural values. It was my pleasure to take part in this charity event and I regard others as my brothers and sisters. This is because my friends are always there to support and help me whenever I face problems. My feelings changed because the children challenged the volunteers that they love and appreciate everybody. The Muslim child also attended Christian masses and understand the Bible teachings. I was impressed to interact and learn new things from the young children, who did not have any negative feelings against each other. This experience also taught me the significance of respecting other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and values. Learning to accommodate different views is a way of showing respect and concern to other people in that environment. People should learn to love and show support to others without the perception of race, religion or social status. The founder of the orphanage home was an African-American, who did not discriminate against any child from other backgrounds.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Assignment - Research Paper Example Colonel William Tavington (Jason Isaacs) shoots and kills BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Thomas (Gregory Smith), who tries to save his brother, Gabriel, from being taken by the British redcoats. Afterwards, the British Army burns BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s house to the ground. The essay compares the characters, settings, and themes of these works. It focuses on Anne Bradstreet and Benjamin Martin as the main characters, mentioning their first names to avoid confusion with other Bradstreets and Martins. The film and poem are the same in showcasing the strength that comes from love of God and family in a setting where traditional values of freedom and independence clash with social conflicts and where these works support the theme that those that truly matter in life can never be burned down. The characters are the same because they remain religious and strong-spirited despite experiencing numerous hardships that include the burning of their houses. Anne Bradstreet went to America with her husband in 1630. During this time, Anne experienced hardships in their journey, and even more as they began a new life in the New World (Reuben). These hardships included her failing health, malnutrition, New World diseases, and the battles with Native Americans (Reuben). When BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s house got burned, her family was settling down well already, only to go through another ordeal of losing their home. Even with this problem, Anne shows devotion as a Christian. She believes that the house is not even hers to begin with: Ã¢â¬Å"I blest His name that gave and tookÃ¢â¬ (Bradstreet line 14). She loses her lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s work with the house, but she remains steadfast in her faith in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Anne has the strength of a good Christian whose faith never waivers. The same strength of character goes for Benjamin as a family man and a Christian. His wife just died and he has seven children, the eldest only 18 years old. He lives during the onset of the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Media Artifact Analysis - Research Paper Example ital media is becoming more complicated because is teaching todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation how to live entirely depending on virtual reality which is associated with time-saving simulation of actual real experience that enable to face time with genuine people (Berger, 2012). As a child everybody remembers spending a lot of time in front of a television and all over sudden your parent comes from nowhere yelling at you sending you outside to play with other kids. The reason behind this was to discourage you get addicted to the television but go outside and have fun as you have real life experience with other kids. This experience helped as to have a chance of interacting and learning from others as we socialize (Ball & Helbing, 2012). The twoube with Twitters is now a trend parody of a current popular online social networking application known as Twitter. This application enables an individual to update their status and activities constantly anytime they feel like throughout the day. When it was first discovered and came into the scene in 2006 after some few years of getting ready the site has cemented following and became home for many global chatter. With the modern culture where convenience is key, the dependence on Twitter is high from the television all the way to billboards, it has proved to be a free platform for marketing of all kind of business, it provides people with an opportunity to always keep in touch anywhere with friends and families, and therefore, Twitter gives something for everyone. The main condition while using Twitter is to within its limit of about 140 characters when posting your massages. The massages or as they are known as Ã¢â¬Å"tweetsÃ¢â¬ being the language used are posted regularly on TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s timeline in real time, here is where tweets originating from followers are contained although there are a number of TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s applications that an individual can download for both cell phones as well as computers (Dijck, 2013). The following are the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Grammatical prescriptivism - Essay Example The article began with the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"The New York Times can be quite accessible for English language learners.Ã¢â¬ The article then illustrated that there are ten tips that can be followed to help utilize the publication as a learning tool. The main argument to the paper is the fact that the New York Times is an excellent source for English as second language students. The first major tip in the article was that the New York Times (NYT) has a Ã¢â¬Å"Look UpÃ¢â¬ function on the website for the reader to access the definition of any word. The second tip illustrates that articles and prepositions are easily put into context, insofar as one can Ã¢â¬Ëscratch outÃ¢â¬â¢ the articles and prepositions from NYT Articles as a test to determine understanding. At this point it is important to highlight that the article also recommends several related articles that further reinforce the arguments made by Ojalvo. The third strategy highlights that a learner can start from a ve ry small article and work up towards more difficult pieces. The fourth tip stresses the point that the NYT has an extensive photo database with captions that describe the action taking place in the picture. This can be a useful tool in relating vocabulary to actions/images.
Friday, August 23, 2019
RESEARCH - Essay Example Different political parties therefore do have different frameworks of handling these different policies and when they come together to work, they have to rationalize the different policies that they have, to come to a binding and conclusive policy paper that clearly articulates how to deal with the issues (Spoonley, Dupuis, and Bruin, 2006). In the rationalization of the policies, there are likely to be challenges that are faced by the parties since the ideological beliefs of the parties may not be flexible to alter. The partyÃ¢â¬â¢s secretariats have to therefore exercise tolerance and allow the give and take principle to take precedence so that a conclusion can be reached. In the case of New Zealand, the possibility of the Green party and Labour party coming together for a coalition must definitely show its strengths as well as the weaknesses in dealing with the issue of employment and unemployment in the country. Thus, this paper looks at the different positions held by the two political parties ha and how they will work for and against them in case they form a coalition government, and is biased to the issues of unemployment among youths in the country. Ideological Positions of the Parties on Employment Matters An ideology in the political environment is defined as a set of political thoughts that guides and determines policies and political action. Political ideologies are not accepted by all the people of every nation and this is even seen in the individual political parties. In this case, the Green and the Labour party have different political ideologies concerning matters relating to employment and unemployment issues. Ideological References of the Green Party The Green party has shown consistent approach to the issues that relates to employment. In their policies, they can be rated to have those policies that appeal to those who are employed. For instance, from 1999, the party has conceived policies for the betterment of the employees (Steve, 2010). They repeal the ECA payment equity for the women in the country. They also made proposal to extend the parental leave progressively form 12 weeks by 1999 to 14 weeks by 2011. The party has also proposed the minimum annual leave to be 4 weeks and have maintained the position to date. The reduced working hours in a week has also been an issue that is critically looked into by the party and maintained it to 35 hours in a week (Auston, 2008). In a very controversial way, the party has also encouraged child employment but maintained that the environment for such employees be safe. Above all, the party has throughout maintained that workers must be supported through their cooperatives; the party has then supported the workers through their cooperatives. They have also worked for the review of the ERA and in that sense, they have supported industrial democracy, employment, and pay equity (Auston, 2008). They have also supported the views of collective bargaining coupled with the balance of wages and life as well as job security. The contribution of the party to the issues of industrial relations has been manifested by the party and it can be attested that it holds a strong position for the employed and wants to better their condition of life. Ideological References of the Labour Party The industrial relatio
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Leadership and Management - Essay Example It is true that earlier organizations concentrated in organization structures that concentrated on limited approaches. This has been a challenge and it is time that organization and management went on a broader front. This can and only is doable by doing a comparison of the available different approaches of organization and management available alongside a thorough study of different types of organizations, their structures and management styles employed (Jones & George, 2011). The identification of the organization type is something that is of utmost fundamental. In earnest organizations exists in four major types, which defines the culture and structure to be employed by an organization. Organization type is determined using Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI), which measures organization type based on ratio vs. flexibility and internal vs. external ratios. In this context, we have hierarchical organizations, which are majorly bureaucratic in nature and quite effect ive in relatively stable environments. Then exists a market organization is applicable in highly competitive environments and adopts task culture. The third is a family organization; this form is family based, employs professional bureaucracy, teamwork, and advocates for norms and values. We also have the adhocracy, which is a form developed out of inventions and innovation, its outstanding character is a combination of both task and personal cultures (Jones & George, 2011). For the organization to function properly, the structure in place should be supportive of the type of organization. Organization structures are the established patterns of relationships of the components and aspects of the organization. Tasks are done in relation to controls, coordination and motivation of employees in the formal systems (Jones & George, 2011). Good organization structures results into outputs of the organization hence achievements of the aims and goals of the organization. Therefore, organizati on culture can be compared to the skeleton in the human body. Organization type, combined within the right structure and crowned with the relevant management style is a complete and successful organization. There are varieties of management styles that can be employed in any form of formal organization. They range from autocratic all the way to the participative and democratic styles, which are the most applicable in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations (Jones & George, 2011). There are many ways of categorizing approaches to organization; the earliest with limited variety of options is the classical approach. Others approaches would entail, human relations, systems and contingency approaches, apart from these, other like decision making, social action and postmodernism are also given consideration. In this case, we would look at the classical approach; this approach simply views an organization in terms of the purpose and the formal structure of the organization. This form of approach look s at an organization in strict senses in terms of work being planned, organizational technical requirements, the principles of management developed and applied and finally the assumptions that are based on logics and rationality in behavior of the stakeholders. The reason for the formation of an organization is the core towards understanding how an organization works; it again helps in understanding the components of the organiza
Deurbanization in Detroit Essay Downtown Detroit has faced tremendous decline over decades, and only now is it undergoing some redevelopments. Many city-led efforts have altered the city and its economy by focusing on taking in corporate dollars and new residents, but it is said by some grassroots organizations that issues faced by DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s inner-city neighborhoods are left ignorant by this method. To create a socially sustainable Detroit, a crucial notion will be the growing collaboration between the advocates of these disparate strategies. Present day Detroit stands at a junction in terms of its future and how itÃ¢â¬â¢ll pan out via these redevelopments. Since the early to mid 20th century Downtown has not looked any better. Loft living, casinos, new stadiums and resettlement of corporate offices of companies like Compuware and of very recent Quicken Loans are all supplying to people so they return, which stands to be a reflection of the return of cooperate development. With respect to history since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and subsequently, in recent years majority of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s resources have been the focus of this traditional or corporate redevelopment model. However, the efficiency of these tactics comes to questioning when you see how throughout Detroit, both in downtown and innumerable neighborhoods, most of the post-industrial decay and desolation found is produced by corporations. Concepts like Ã¢â¬ËCreative classÃ¢â¬ , the Ã¢â¬Å"Cool citiesÃ¢â¬â¢, green collar jobs, urban agriculture and even Ã¢â¬ËImagination economyÃ¢â¬â¢ argufy the traditional corporate tax-break-downtown paradigm. Present debate over the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s redevelopment also ruminate an urban culture which came upon arduous history of clashing classes, racism, deindustrialization and down grading environment, So to achieve conceiving the purpose of city and society and not just redevelop it. Today, in order to reinvent a new Detroit for the 21st century the city an d its residents must come in terms with the bygones and the crude realty which it has imprinted up on the city. Corporate Refurbishment With new lofts, residences and restaurants emerging near downtown Detroit, all thanks to corporate projects like Ford Field, Comerica Park and the relocation of Quicken Loans and Compuware, the city is made more vibrant. But these pledges are likewise a deliberate choice to entice back through, physical enhancements and attraction, the white middle that fled since the early Second World War and continue even today. Simultaneously, these policies neglect many concerns in the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhoods where reside largely African American. Status quo policies are eventually implanted in the same system that originally resulted in DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall and it seems that it fails to acknowledge the history of decline that shaped the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s problems to begin with. They carry a sense of immediacy and rightly so. But the long term reliability of these solutions is unclear, especially when attention given to alternatives is rare. Downtown city perhaps, being the most prominent city symbol, stands far from being a decent portrayal of Detroit as a whole. Ã¢â¬ËCool CitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ program of the state of Michigan and Ã¢â¬ËCreative ClassÃ¢â¬â¢ notion of Richard Florida manifests some of the most prevalent concepts as substitutes to the strictly corporate and grand model of urban redevelopment. These ideas cater to create a Ã¢â¬Ëpeople climateÃ¢â¬â¢ to attract the crowd by emphasizing the link between education centers, a vibrant Ã¢â¬ËauthenticÃ¢â¬â¢ urban center and a lively middle class. Their bases rely on containing and appealing talented people via opportunities and educational institutions rather than creating casinos and stadiums to lure tourist. Successful examples of this strategy are: San Francisco, Chicago, Portland and New York. In some regards Detroit is striving to replicate these citiesÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Loft living, local restaurants, the educational appeal of Wayne State University and to some stretch, the river walk, is this notions part. Nevertheless, there lies a prominent belief under these ideas that struggling cities like Detroit can only be revitalized by attracting fresh residents, instead of investing in the people having bore the living cost of urban decline, and go beyond radical and particularly class boundaries. Fresh solutions to the Urban Crisis: With a focal point being DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood, an increasing number of people prefer a truly new means of thinking on how urban centers be redeveloped in a holistic manner for a socially and an environmentally sustainable future. Entrepreneurial socialist Jackie Victor, Ã¢â¬Å"Community activistÃ¢â¬ Grace Lee Boggs, and Capuchin Monks and organizations alike The Greening of Detroit advocate for people and believe that residents, forgotten and abandoned by what Boggs titles the Ã¢â¬Å"dominant cultureÃ¢â¬ must Ã¢â¬Ëgrow their soulsÃ¢â¬â¢ which meet their needs by visualizing a fresh way of redevelopment. The growing presence of urban organic farming in the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhoods manifests new ways of conceiving DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s present situation, business morals of Avalon Bakery (with a devotion to local community and socially responsible mission, is an organic bakery opened by Detroit residents) and even at university level, where from the University of Detroi t Mercy a group of students formed the Adamah Project, an agricultural and green vision for DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s eastside. Co founder, Avalon Bakery , Jakie Victor highlights not only her business model but also wider themes of self determination and local reliance when she writes Ã¢â¬Å"Sustainability, local economy, and community are three pillars of the path not-yet taken in Detroit. A path that moves beyond downtown development, beyond Ã¢â¬Ëcool cities. The Imagination Economy can be an authentic expression of who we are, .However the uneven focus given on downtown leads to these themes not being presented on equal level in the city redevelopment strategies, which very similar to suburban sprawl, neglects and sustains in society class and racial division that have been DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s and other cities Ã¢â¬â part for years of history. Not focusing on the needs and assets of the current residents, the local government seems vastly focused on luring people to the city. It is unwilling, amidst the continued desolation of its residents, to look for new solutions that would aim to profit a larger division of the city but is rather enraptured with the idea that community wellbeing and jobs can only come through physical improvements and corporations. As a result same people, who have been at the pit of this flunked system, receive a clear message of hopelessness and betrayal. A holistic approach to redevelopment In Detroit the community-centered Ã¢â¬Ëagri-urbanÃ¢â¬â¢ sides of the redevelopment argument seeks to rebuilt the prevailing communities of the city and in an all-inclusive way , by linking environment issues, education and in Avalon BakeryÃ¢â¬â¢s instance, business ethics. In August 2007, after a lucrative garden tour of the city, one Detroiter remarked: Detroit, without a doubt is a stronghold of possibility. When these disparate, groups advocating redevelopment, harness the potential for collaboration and genuine dialogue, Detroit can reach beyond possibility, to become the next grand American city, by creating a authentic holistic redevelopment structure that addresses historically established problems of community degradation and race/class while dealing with subjective matters such as environmental sustainability. To some it seems unreasonable that Detroit should bear a radically dissimilar model of urban redevelopment policy alone, a city affected by treacherous Federal policies. If successful, Detroit will become an exemplar for the region as a compliant metropolitan future and thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll make the entire difference.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Nuclear pollution Any undesirable effect caused to the environment due to radioactive substances or radiations is called nuclear pollution.Major source is the Nuclear power plants. If traces of the radioactive substances are present in the water that is released from the plant, it will cause nuclear pollution. Emission of radiations can also cause this kind of pollution. It affects almost all life forms in the surrounding environment. From planktons to Human beings nothing is spared. To be more specific, the radiations can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and the dose of radiation or the level of pollution determines lethality or how deadly it is. However, nuclear pollution is extremely hazardous in nature. It occurs as a result of nuclear explosions that are performed while conducting nuclear tests. These nuclear tests are carried out to invent better nuclear weapons. The explosions cause release of 15 to 20% radioactive material into the stratosphere. On entering this layer, they start falling into the earths atmosphere. This fall can take any where from 6months to several years. 5% of these radioactive particles enter troposphere, which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. The smallest particles of the radioactive material are called fallout. The fallout settles on the leaves of plants and trees. These leaves are eaten by the grazing animals. Radioactive material now enters the ecosystem. Humans consume these particles through the process of food chain. Serious health problems now arise. Ingestion of radioactive material can lead to cancer and genetic mutation in humans. Fallouts that do not drop on leaves accumulate over the sea. This can be harmful for the sea life, which ultimately affects the humans. It isnt necessary that only nuclear power stations cause nuclear pollution. Even other industries, not related to nuclear power production, can also contribute to it. Coal has small amounts of radioactive material in the form of uranium and thorium. These do not burn completely and become part of fly ash. Even while producing oil and gas, radium and similar elements are released in to the air. Radioactive contamination or nuclear pollution is the most dangerous for the environment since the wastes maintain their radioactive properties for thousands of years. There is no way to have them assimilated in the soil, the water or the air in the initial form. Reprocessing is the only solution we have to limit the extent of nuclear pollution and clean the planet from such increasingly harmful residues. The highest likelihood of radioactive elements reaching in open environment is by accident during the transportation to the reprocessing plants located in some parts of the globe. Reprocessing in itself causes other pollution problems adding other risks to an already fragile environment condition. Presently, no country has efficiently solved the issue of nuclear pollution in terms of radioactive waste storage. Every state would like to send the residues to some other place and be rid of them, while no truly viable conclusion is reached. Storage facilities as such require highly intransigent security and safety rules, periodical checks and regular updates on the storage environment. A responsible management of the nuclear waste would limit the risk of nuclear pollution on the long term, allowing us to live on a cleaner and safer planet, also preventing the temptation of dumping the waste in the oceans. Nuclear pollution is not the only hazard that comes together with the use of radioactive energy: mass populations are jeopardized on a current basis if something happens to a reactor, as it was the case with the Russian Chernobyl for instance. There are other energy sources that are still highly effective without the huge risks of nuclear pollution or irradiation: geothermal sources, ocean currents, tidal waves, wind and waterfalls, all make alternative power solutions that should not be neglected. Environment-friendly electricity is one of the chances this planet has to survive. Fish and ocean plants are highly contaminated due to nuclear pollution; Greenpeace has repeatedly signaled out the huge amount of plutonium effluents produced by the nuclear plant on the coasts of England, for instance. Lobsters in the area have been found to be contaminated, hence the effects not only on humans but on the entire ecosystem is devastating. Attempts have been by an American company to even built a radioactive storage facility on Marshall Islands, ignoring the even higher potential threats for nuclear pollution under the circumstances of a growing sea level. Such solutions may appear convenient from a certain perspective, but when considered from a wider point of view, irresponsibility is obvious.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Political Ecology Has Come Of Age Geography Essay Political ecology is by no means a new concept. As a theory it produces a complex framework of understanding into the relationships between political, economic and social environments and the effect these relations have on environmental development and protection, developing common ground where disciplines can intersection (Greenburg and Park (1994).Ã The nature of political ecology can be so broadly defined that as a field of research has developed, no one definition has been substantiated in order to fully characterise the assertion towards collective considerations of society and nature. Although the adaptation and expansion of this body of knowledge continues to create a broader sub-context in which geographic and development studies are practiced, creating greater obstacles in its theoretical classification, Robbins (2004) defines political ecology as, Ã¢â¬Ëempirical, research based explorations to explain linkages in the condition and change of social/environmental systems , with explicit considerations of relations of power.Ã The emphasis placed on political ecology is to provide a sense of connectedness within a field that traditional sees the sum of its parts divided into different areas of definition and implication. As the study of the importance of political ecology by Stott and Sullivan (2000) has shown that by identifying the political circumstances that forced people into activities which caused environmental degradation, in the absence of alternative possibilities, there is a need to illustrate the political dimensions of environmental narratives and in deconstructing particular narratives, to suggest that accepted ideas of degradation and deterioration may not be simple linear trends to predominate.Ã This approach to geographic thinking provides the academic field with a further dimension of theoretical application but as to whether its use has truly Ã¢â¬Ëcome of age remains a contested issue within academia and the wider world of representative approaches to environmental conservation and positive action towards sustainability. This essay will concentrate on deconstructing whether this critical approach to human-environmental relations has broken the barriers to understanding political, human and environmental interactions in a wider social context. This will be achieved through the examination of critiques within the approach, taking into account the important questions of whose history and whose knowledge is being represented and elements of contested theory and implication that cause problematic outcomes on the global stage of development. Whilst developing this argument, also being taken into consideration will be the contribution political ecology has had within and towar ds development and development studies, in order to establish what the role and emphasis is of resulting work that the approach of political ecology has in the ever expanding field of critical development, evaluating, as noted by Muldavin (2008), Ã¢â¬Ëwhere Ã¢â¬Ëwe have been in the past, where we are today, and where we may be going in the future and whether political ecology can ever manifest itself within a structured and conclusive framework or whether the approach will only suffice to be Ã¢â¬Ëall things to all people (Blaikie, 2008). The field of political ecology is vast, through which the addition to theoretical impact through the development of effective frameworks creating limitless boundaries toward disciplinary input where the flexible and adaptive form found within political ecology has allow new and diverse currents of thought within a positivist framework. When considering whether political ecology has come of age, although there are continual debates over the theoretical and methodological implications towards the approaches undertaken by the academy, overlooking these momentarily, it becomes clear that in an age where environmental protection, conservation and the development of long term Ã¢â¬Ëgreen policy is the most predominant topic on policy makers minds, it would be clear to identify the intermediate coming of age of the discipline, despite its continual critique. Arguably, although the approach itself, suffers from what Muldavin (2008) describes as Ã¢â¬Ëboundaries of ignorance that allow unru ly practices to be maintained and reproduced, the controversial subjection of theory and practice leads to a continual critical reassessment of the approaches implications to form continually renewed policy, although criticised for its lack of engagement with practical problem solving (Walker, 2006). The issues of multi-discipline connectedness and the increasing need for social and environmental synergy brings the issues undertaken by aspects of political ecology to occupy the central stage (Peet and Watts, 2004) of global environmental politics and civil society debates. In order to overcome institutionalized system of knowledge the issues raised in the expansion of political ecology debate has allowed for the production of space for thought, opening up discussion toward how discourse formation and representativeness in the present and towards the future to shape policy and practice in order to drive political ecology to form positive regulation of global commons. Developments within the field of political ecology have been vast over the last forty years, with particular emphasis being placed, in the last decade, on what Bebbington (2003) terms Ã¢â¬Ëtheorizing up (Walker, 2006). As previous environmental narratives are questioned, the ability to Ã¢â¬Ëtheorize up seek ways to ascertain the significance of such studies in broader development concerns, (Walker, 2006) where the approach to political ecology represents an integration of environmental knowledge and social justice that is not yet fully adopted or understood in all environmental debate (Forsyth, 2008). Through this stand point the ability to create suitable space in which to consider social participation in environment development and conservation through the implementation of local initiatives can be utilized. As argued by Simon (2003) for the need of balanced integrated attention to the biophysical/environmental and social political realms at different scales, in order to approp riately analyse the formulation of discourse. Much work has been undertaken to deconstruct commonly assumed environmental narratives and the diversity within the field through interdisciplinary connection and Ã¢â¬Ëhybrid knowledge or Ã¢â¬Ëdiscourse coalitions (Latour, 1993; Hajer, 1995; Blaikie, 2008) that have allowed the formulation of theory and methodology to remain lucid and adaptable to change.Ã However, although as argued by Watts (2003) the diversity of political ecology should be celebrated, its position in the world outside the academy of [political ecologist] thought provides a bleak landscape of complex terminology and distant solutions bound in red tape. Many political ecologists argue the concept of Ã¢â¬Ënon-equilibrium ecology (Forsyth, 2008) as the production of long term policy solutions made due to space-time factors.Ã With this in mind the assessment of political ecology developments dealing with issues such as access, the effect of institutions on vulnerable societies and the increasing emergence of women in development studies need to be taken into consideration. In the past access and control of resources in environment conservation continues to produce a divide in the politics of knowledge production in the global North and South. Although the work of political ecology seeks to understand and further develop the connections between social networks and the natural environment through its interaction with government and non-government lead organisations, the approach has been problematic from its beginning. Peet and Watts (2004) identify a fundamental flaw through the polarization of the Ã¢â¬Å"havesÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"have notsÃ¢â¬ , where an emphasis on the effects of poverty on environment impact has been inherently linked to the causes of degradation in vulnerable areas in need for conservation, focusing heavily on third world and developing countries, which sees negative impacts on the environment fall into a Ã¢â¬Ëblaming the victim approach within social scientific concerns (Peet and Watts, 2004).Ã This approach arguably reinf orces post-colonial/post-structuralideologies of power and control over resources, through the reproduction of authority where knowledge toward global environmental management is encoded through institutionalised forms of knowledge rhetoric. These theoretical stand points allow for the rationalization of certain types of conclusion or outcome, whilst justifying change to traditional interaction with the environment including enclosure, exclusion and displacement of particular groups within a society.Ã The implication of this ideological, knowledge certification sees the privilege of particular forms of knowledge and power through which policy and practice toward further environmental trajectories are planned and applied. Although the production of knowledge and policy is important on a global scale, within particular western frameworks of progressive development policy, questions that should be consider include to whom does the policy speak? Whose history, whose science is being institutionalised and privileged and why? Although it is clear certain material impact push particular bands of knowledge into the foreground of discussion; the discourse of development and political ecology, the issues of scale and region variability inevitably become blurred within a colonial sense of restriction and a prescribed vision of what nature and environmental Ã¢â¬Ëwilderness should be, rather than development. Due to the nature of power allocation within development, diverse actors tend not to provide solutions but continue to allocate blame to local land users, with institutional development moving towards alleviating and helping the poor rather than supporting them through long term policy implementation, what Vayda and Walters (1999) argue produces a limitless capacity [for political ecologists] to neither verify their subject of scrutiny nor to have understood the complex and contingent interconnections of factors whereby environmental changes are produced (Forsyth, 2008). Through the consideration of access to resources and institutions, the notion of privileged knowledge assertion and limited access toward political production and resource affirmation, a major development to be considered within conservation management and political ecology is the role of women in development (Jewitt and Kumar, 2004; Robbins, 2004). Women are traditionally depicted to have a close, maternal connection with nature. Though this connection womens closeness to nature aids the development of comprehensive agro-ecological knowledge and environmental management practices (Shiva, 1988) that are restricted due to reduced mobility within society and ecological theory production and more disadvantaged by development programmes (Jewitt and Kumar, 2004) and disproportionately represented among the poor, as a homogenous group. Theory toward the construction of a special relationship between women and the environment has previously been detrimental to the development of consistent policy construction toward scale of social movements in ecological conservation, in this sense, the deconstruction of environment narratives by examining wider inequalities in the division of labour towards Ã¢â¬Ëdiscourse sensitivity (Jewitt and Kumar, 2004) to support and collaborate (Rocheleau, 2008). The example of Joint Forestry Management in India by Jewitt and Kumar (2004) of the possible developments political theory could bring to development strategies is positive but also there are empirical problems that are interwoven in this collaboration with political ecology as a whole, including the lack of assessment toward whether theory can be effectively put into practice on the ground and whether their effectiveness through diverse communities can be achieved. Although the implications political ecology brings to the surface are very urgent and relevant, toward the development of necessary development and conservation policy, issues which are at the heart of present political, economic, cultural and social debate, its inherent complexities provide problematic understanding and expansion as to whether although in terms of its importance and theoretical distinction, the approach has become more grounded and come of age within academic discussion. On the wider, more global stage its concepts of development and conservation theory, although poignant, fail to provide a consistence material solution to aid positive outcomes for conservation development. As argued by Robbins (2004) political ecology is too focused on the broadly defined Ã¢â¬Ëunderdeveloped world and posits the environment as a finite source of basic unchanging and essential elements, which set absolute limits for human action. However intuitive, this assumption has proven histo rically false and conceptually flawed. When considering the implications of political ecology as a critical approach to human-environmental relations, although it is important to consider the approach as a construction of meaning and justification for social and cultural implications on a multilayered scaled, the approach consequentially leads to complexities and problematic understanding. These inconsistencies begin with the problem of a definition that can be transformed to fit different meanings, inevitably creating obstacle to development and environmental justice.Ã The inability to connect with the wider world due to the diversity of complex notions of theory, devalue the benefit of the connectedness to other disciplines as the pool of thought is limited to a few. Although keen to move toward grounded engagement with the production of integrated social and environmental knowledge toward consistent policy (as seen through the work of Blaikie) Ã¢â¬Ëthe dependency on single stories (in local level research analysis ) reduces the likelihood of influencing many bodies (Bebbington, 2003; Walker, 2004). Although the emphasis on cultural value is present in research, scaling up solutions from snap shots of research data can see many issues lost or lessened. Despite trying to diversify land based initiatives e.g. through donor site programmes, changes have seen movement away from policy based initiatives. The reproduction of knowledge as power, the allocation of privileged theory and the reproduction of poverty and inequality still remains challenging, as argued by Robbins (2004) who states the assertion that superior environmental knowledge originates in the global north for transfer to the global south is problematic due to the reproduction of colonial knowledge and discounting of indigenous knowledge and participation of local communities. Also within this framework of Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge as power is the production of Ã¢â¬Ëwild landscapes working towards conservation initiatives under the initiative of nature as a commodity, which introduces new levels of ambiguity and problematic methodological within the field of development studies and political ecology practices. As cited by Marx, Ã¢â¬Ëeven society as a whole, a nation, or all existing societies put together, are not owners of the Earth. They are merely its occupants, its users; and like good caretakers, they must hand it dow n improved to subsequent generations (Peet and Watts, 2004).Ã Although, in many instances the commodification of natural resources e.g. the introduction of private parks has created conservation zones, the ethics and highly problematic issues attached to this type of land acquirement has produced environmental conflict. Commodification of land and nature are arguably an expansion of the colonial state, which see the development of an argument where people are removed by state intervention [inherently linked to political ecology (Peet and Watts, 2004)] leaving land to be managed by external structures and nature to be socially constructed causing problems for indigenous groups. Although political ecology approaches are trying to provide a mode of explanation towards engaging nature and political dimensions between human environment relations, they very rarely accomplish a distinctive and workable solution. In conclusion, although the body of knowledge that political ecology produces is highly relevant in modern perceptions towards the urgency of resource dilemmas, the seclusion of the theoretical approach which is confined to non-material based responses to environmental conservation is highly problematic. Although it is argued political ecology has come of age, in definition, the unity of the approach with wider debate still remains marginal to the broader field of development. Blaikie (2008) argues the importance of stabilising political ecology through a more aggressive institutionalization at college and university level. This could be argued as contradictory considering the need and importance of transition to a more decentralised applications of knowledge, through the further inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems and the compromise of researchers and theorists to accommodate the needs of local individuals in order to not displace the values and priorities of communities on th e ground considering the need to further institutionalise theory as stated by Blaikie to make political ecology Ã¢â¬Ëwork. Therefore, it could then be stated that unlike the rediscovery of geography (Muldavin, 2008), political ecology still has many complexities to consider and overcome in order to promote positive impacts towards future environmental development that would result in greater representativeness of the approach in the global arena.Ã References: Agrawal, A. (2008) The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptation to climate change. Social Dimensions of Climate Change, Social Development Department, The World Bank, March 5-6 Blaikie, P. (2008) Epilogue: Towards a future for political ecology that works. Geoforum 39, 765-772 Forsyth, T. (2008) Political Ecology and the epistemological of social justice, Geoforum 39, 756-764 Greenburg, J.B. and Park, T.K. (1994) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical ecology, Journal of Political Ecology 1 Hajer, M. (1995) in Forsyth, T. (2008) Political Ecology and the epistemological of social justice, Geoforum 39, 756-764 Jewitt, S. and Kumar, S. (2004) Ã¢â¬ËA political ecology of forest management: gender and silvicultural knowledge in the Jharkhand, India in Stott, P., Sullivan, S. (2000) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Ecology: Science, Myth and Power. Arnold: London Latour, R. (1993) in Forsyth, T. (2008) Political Ecology and the epistemological of social justice, Geoforum 39, 756-764 Marx, Capital, vol.1 in Peet, R., Watts, M. (2004) Liberation Ecologies: Environment, development, social movements. Second Edition, Routledge: Oxon Muldavin, J. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËThe time and place for political ecology: An introduction to the articles honouring the life work of Piers Blaikie. Geoforum 39, 687-697 Peet, R. and Watts, M. (2004) Liberation Ecologies: Environment, development, social movements. Second Edition, Routledge: Oxon Pepper, D., Webster, F. and Revill, G. (2003) Environmentalism: Critical concepts. Routledge: London Robbins, P.(2004) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Ecology: A critical introduction. Blackwell Publishing: UK Rocheleau, D.E. (2008) Political ecology in the key of policy: From Chains of explanation to webs of reaction. Geoforum 39, 716 727 Shiva, V. (1988) cited in Jewitt, S., Kumar, S. (2004) Ã¢â¬ËA political ecology of forest management: gender and silvicultural knowledge in the Jharkhand, India in Stott, P., Sullivan, S. (2000) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Ecology: Science, Myth and Power. Arnold: London Simon, D. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Ecology and development: Intersections, explorations, and challenges arising from the work of Piers Blaikie. Geoforum 39, 698-707 Stott, P. and Sullivan, S. (2000) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical Ecology: Science, Myth and Power. Arnold: London Vayda, P. and Walters. (1999) Against political ecology. Human ecology, 27 (1) 1-18 in Peet, R., Watts, M. (2004) Liberation Ecologies: Environment, development, social movements. Second Edition, Routledge: Oxon Walker, P. A. (2006) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical ecology: Where is the Policy? Progress in Human Geography 30 (3), 382-395 Watts, M. J. (2003) For political ecology, unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley in Walker, P. A. (2006) Ã¢â¬ËPolitical ecology: Where is the Policy? Progress in Human Geography 30 (3), 382-395 Zimmerer, K.S., Bassett, T.J. (2003) Political Ecology: An integrative approach to geography and environment development studies. The Guildford Press: New York
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Sword in the Stone The Sword in the Stone is a book about an adopted child named Wart. He is of royal blood and does not know this.Ã One day when Wart is in the forest, he finds a magician named Merlin.Ã Merlin comes home with Wart and agrees with Sir Ector, Wart's guardian, to become Wart's tutor.Ã Merlin goes about educating Wart by transforming him into different animals. Through each transformation Wart experiences different forms of power, each being a part of how he should rule as king. Ã Ã Ã Ã The first transformation plunges Wart and Merlin into the castle's moat as fish.Ã They proceed to meet the largest fish in the moat, who is the ruler.Ã This fish takes what he wants because of his size. Ã In a speech about power, he tells Wart that, "Might is right," and might of the body is greater than might of the mind. Because of the way the fish-king rules, his subjects obey him out of fear for their lives.Ã Wart experiences this firsthand when the fish-king tells him to leave.Ã He has grown bored of Wart, and if Wart does not leave he will eat him.Ã The king uses his size as his claim to power, therefore his subjects follow him out of fear. Ã Ã Ã Ã In Wart's next transformation into a hawk, he soars into the castle's mews.Ã All the birds in the mews have a military rank. Their leader is an old falcon, who Sir Ector keeps for show.Ã The birds who rank below the falcon, hold her in highest regard because of her age.Ã She applies her power over the other birds with no concern for their lives.Ã In one instance, Wart is ordered to stand next to the cage of a crazy hawk who almost kills him.Ã On the other hand, her seasoned age brings respect, since she had not been released once she outlived her usefulness as a huntress.Ã This allows her to maintain a powerful grip over all the birds she rules through fear and respect. Ã Ã Ã Ã Next, Wart is transformed into an ant and posted within an ant colony. There is a single leader of the ants, and she is the only thinking
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Relation between Pearl and Nature in The Scarlet Letter Ã Ã Ã Ã In Nathaniel Hawthorne's work, The Scarlet Letter, nature plays a very symbolic role. Throughout the book, nature is incorporated into the story line. One example of this is with the character of Pearl. Pearl is very different than all the other characters due to her special relationship with Nature. Hawthorne personifies Nature as sympathetic towards sins against the puritan way of life. Hester's sin causes Nature to accept Pearl. First it is necessary to examine how nature is identified with sin against the Puritan way of life. The first example of this is found in the first chapter regarding the rosebush at the prison door. This rosebush is located "on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold"(36) of the prison. The prison naturally is the place where people that have sinned against the puritan way of life remain. Then Hawthorne suggests that the roses of the rose-bush "might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty to the prisoner as he went in, and to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in token that the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to him"(36). This clearly states that Nature is kind to prisoners and criminals that pass through the prison doors. Hawthorne strengthens this point by suggesting two possible reasons for the rosebush's genesis. The first is that "it had merely survived out of the stern old wilderness..."(36), while the second rea son is that "there is fair authority for believing [the rose-bush] had sprung up under the footsteps of the sainted Ann Hutchinson..."(36). By Hawthorne's wording it appears as if he is emphasizing the second reason because he suggests there is "fai... ... little girl's banishment from Puritan society she was thrown to another way of life and her wildness and peculiarity is a direct product of her banishment. Works Cited and Consulted: Aym, Richard. Nature in The Scarlet Letter. Classic Notes http://www.gradesaver.com/classicnotes/titles/thescarletletter/fullsumm.html. February 15, 2002. Brown, Bryan D. "Reexamining Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. http://www.usinternet.com/users/bdbournellonie.htm. March 1, 2002. Clendenning, John. "Nathaniel Hawthorne." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Griswold, Rufus Wilmot. "The Scarlet Letter." The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors. Ed. Charles Wells Moulton. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith Publishing, 1989. 341-371. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996. Ã Relation between Pearl and Nature in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet The Relation between Pearl and Nature in The Scarlet Letter Ã Ã Ã Ã In Nathaniel Hawthorne's work, The Scarlet Letter, nature plays a very symbolic role. Throughout the book, nature is incorporated into the story line. One example of this is with the character of Pearl. Pearl is very different than all the other characters due to her special relationship with Nature. Hawthorne personifies Nature as sympathetic towards sins against the puritan way of life. Hester's sin causes Nature to accept Pearl. First it is necessary to examine how nature is identified with sin against the Puritan way of life. The first example of this is found in the first chapter regarding the rosebush at the prison door. This rosebush is located "on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold"(36) of the prison. The prison naturally is the place where people that have sinned against the puritan way of life remain. Then Hawthorne suggests that the roses of the rose-bush "might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty to the prisoner as he went in, and to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in token that the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to him"(36). This clearly states that Nature is kind to prisoners and criminals that pass through the prison doors. Hawthorne strengthens this point by suggesting two possible reasons for the rosebush's genesis. The first is that "it had merely survived out of the stern old wilderness..."(36), while the second rea son is that "there is fair authority for believing [the rose-bush] had sprung up under the footsteps of the sainted Ann Hutchinson..."(36). By Hawthorne's wording it appears as if he is emphasizing the second reason because he suggests there is "fai... ... little girl's banishment from Puritan society she was thrown to another way of life and her wildness and peculiarity is a direct product of her banishment. Works Cited and Consulted: Aym, Richard. Nature in The Scarlet Letter. Classic Notes http://www.gradesaver.com/classicnotes/titles/thescarletletter/fullsumm.html. February 15, 2002. Brown, Bryan D. "Reexamining Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. http://www.usinternet.com/users/bdbournellonie.htm. March 1, 2002. Clendenning, John. "Nathaniel Hawthorne." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Griswold, Rufus Wilmot. "The Scarlet Letter." The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors. Ed. Charles Wells Moulton. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith Publishing, 1989. 341-371. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996. Ã
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Oedipus, in SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Oedipus Rex, is by definition, a tragic hero. King Laios of Thebes was given a prophecy from the oracle that he would be murdered by his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s hand, and that his son would marry his wife, Queen Iocaste. When Oedipus was born, King Laios had him taken to Mt. Cithaeron to die, however, the servant who was instructed to take him to the mountain felt pity for the baby and turned him over to a shepherd from Corinth. Once in Corinth, he was raised by King Polybus and Queen Merope, and the prophecy slowly became a reality. Oedipus grew up, believing that he was indeed the son of Polybus and Merope, when a drunken man informed him that he was not his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s son. In search of the truth, he went to the shrine at Delphi, where he was told of the same prophecy his birth parents already knew, and fled to Thebes, believing the prophecy pertained to King Polybus and Queen Merope. In going to Thebes, he finds that King Laios was murdered in the same area that he had recently murdered a man in. He tells Iocasta of this event, exclaiming that he had Ã¢â¬Å"killed him. [He] killed them all.Ã¢â¬ (Scene II, ll. 288-289) His curiosity gets the best of him, and he orders Ã¢â¬â as the new king of Thebes Ã¢â¬â that the people find out who murdered Laios, and that they report it to him immediately. When a messenger brings the shepherd to the palace, he is told that he was LaiosÃ¢â¬â¢ son. Oedipus realizes that he has killed his own father, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Ah God! It was true! All the prophecies!Ã¢â¬ (Scene IV, ll. 68-70) Iocaste is horrified by this, and flees to her room, where she is later found Ã¢â¬Å"hanging, her body swaying from the cruel cord she had noosed about her neck.Ã¢â¬ (Exodus, II. 38-39) Oedipus finds her lifeless body, and breaks down, completely hysterical, Ã¢â¬Å"[striking] his eyes Ã¢â¬â not once, but many times.Ã¢â¬ (Exodus, l. 52) His entire lifespan is completely full of tragedy. His nobility, his curiosity, his bad choices, the realization of a foretold prophecy coming to life, the death of Iocaste, and the blinding by his own hand, all contribute to the theory of him being a tragic hero. He was born the son of a king, and lived his life king of both Corinth and Thebes Ã¢â¬â responsible for the people of his land. His curiosity is his biggest flaw, because he canÃ¢â¬â¢t leave well enough alone, and goes to great lengths to find out the truth. His choice to kill the man on the road instead of just letting the confrontation go decided his fate. Realizing that heÃ¢â¬â¢s murdered Laios even though heÃ¢â¬â¢d triedÃ so hard to prevent the prophecy from becoming a reality was unbearable. Finding Iocasta dead in her room by her own hand was his suffering. Finally, gouging out his own eyes in a hysterical attempt to punish himself was a punishment far beyond the crimes he had committed. These factors alone do not define a tragic hero, but when brought together the way they do in SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play, they make Oedipus a tragic hero.
While civilian deaths and fatalities have gone down by 53. 6 percent in the last 20 years, only 20 percent decrease of the same has been reported from the firefighters. In fact, in the last 20 years, the United States has recorded an increased number of deaths and fatalities more than any other time in history. 1999 recorded the highest deaths at 112, followed closely by 2003, which recorded 105 deaths. This rate begs the question, are the fire fighters working more to ensure civilian safety, while risking their own lives? Safety standards during fire fighting Safety standards in the firefighting department have seen tremendous improvements in the past 20 years (Pessemier, B. 2009). This includes increased training among the fire fighters about the safety standards and better work practices, in addition to the purchase of better and efficient fire fighting equipment. In the last 10 years, a 34 % death increase was recorded among the firefighters. This in turn indicates that despite the improvements in the fire fighting department, there has been a decrease safety measures in the fire services. According to the US, fire Administration (FEMA), the approximate number of firefighters who have perished in firefighting activities in the last 20 years average to 100 firefighters annually. This trend was at its worst in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, took a downward trend in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and resumed the high number in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. A study carried out between 1990 and 2000 by FEMA to establish the real cause of the injuries and deaths among the firefighters revealed that 44 percent of firefighters die due to heart attacks. Fatal injuries was second accounting for 27 percent of the deaths, burns and asphyxia ranked third accounting for 20 percent of all deaths(FEMA, 2008) The report also revealed that firefighters aged above 35 years stands more risk of medical related deaths. Such include heart attacks and stroke. Below 35 years, firefighters were more prone to traumatic injuries that eventually led to their deaths (FEMA, 2008). The report further revealed that 60 percent of the casualties fell under the above 40 years age bracket, while a third of them were aged above 50 years. This too begs the question, is age a factor when analyzing the rising deaths among the firefighters? This question can be answered by a closer look at the affiliation of the firefighter fatalities. 57 percent of all firefighter fatalities were affiliated to volunteer fire fighting agencies. These agencies had both volunteer fire fighters and volunteer personnel. However, seeing that career personnel make a mere 26 % of the fire fighting agencies through out the country, the proportionate of volunteers suffer fatalities. In fact, career firefighters only account for 33 percent of the fatalities. Here, the question of age pops again. An approximate 40 percent of the volunteers are aged above 50 years. Training is of outmost important for both career and volunteer firefighters because it prepares them on response tactics and safety procedures. Training on emergency response, incident command, safety and hot fire cases should be sufficient. However, at least 6 percent of fatalities in the past 10 years occurred during training. This was a higher number than what was recorded in the preceding 10 years. Physical fitness training has been the leading cause of training fatalities, followed closely by live fire and equipment drills (FEMA, 2008). Fatalities of volunteers and career firefighters are only recorded as a firefighter death if the person was on duty and if his death occurred 24 hour after he/she completed a fire related call on behalf of a fire department (Medgenmed. medscape. com, 2006). The Occupational safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued safety guidelines in 1980, as a way of combating the rising deaths and fatalities among the fire fighters (Marshall, S. T, 2004). In the guidelines, the organization authorized the use of fire-retarding clothing and self-contained breathing equipment. Although it was not clear, whether it was the guidelines or the decreased number of fires that were registered between 1979 and 2002, the number of fatalities in the fire services decreased annually by 52 percent in the three year period (Marshall, S. T, 2004). The working conditions To comply with OSHAÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations, firefighters are required to carry a self-contained air apparatus weighing 30 lbs. They must also wear protective clothing, which wears another 30 lbs. Although this offers more protection to the firefighters, critics argue that the additional 60 lbs that the fire fighters have to drag along during a firefighting exercise adds to physical stress and may lead to exhaustion, which is a leading cause of cardiac arrest related deaths(Marshall, S. T, 2004). The protective gear and the oxygen apparatus that fire fighters carry in their fire fighting exercises has also been blamed for an increased aggressiveness among the firefighters. The worrying thing about such aggressiveness is that most firefighters do not realize that the safety gear does not offer overall protection against death. Lack of adequate information about conditions that may be tackled and those that are too risky is also insufficient (Marshall, S. T, 2004). Unlike earlier times where firefighter based the decision to fight a fire from indoors by how hot their ears were, modern day hoods cover the ears and the temperatures can rise to fatal levels without the fire fighters recognizing it. That is the leading cause of many flashover incidences, where everything in a building, including the firefighter ignites concurrently due to very high temperatures (Marshal, S. T, 2004) Unlike earlier times where veteran firefighters knew it was time to leave a building when they felt dizzy or started coughing, the modern day breathing devices shield them from inhaling smoke. The tell tale signs that may signify the need to leave a building are therefore disorients them from the realities of a dangerous indoor environment. When smoke concentration becomes too high, there can be a sporadic ignition of the area. As such, even the training on working in zero visibility conditions comes to naught, as the firefighter will be engulfed in the random fire within a short time (Marshall, S. T, 2004). The OSHA regulations further require fire fighters not to start a fire fighting exercise unless a team of at least four people has been assembled. This requirement was put in place as a means of ensuring that assisting firemen were available just in case those fighting the fire needed it. Although noble in its intentions, Critics argue that this piece of regulation, known as 2 in/2 out protection standard hinder less than four firefighters who arrive at the place of fire on time to manage fire spread before it grows. As such, they argue that time that could otherwise be used to combat the spread of the fire is lost as fire fighters attempt to establish rescue teams (Marshall, S. T, 2004). Deaths that occur when firefighters are traveling to the fire destination are also on the rise. This are documented as Motor Vehicle Collisions (MVCs), and has accounted for an average of 22. 5 percent annual fatalities in the US since 1984. In a haste to respond to fire alarms, majority of fire fighters who perished in MVC s are in private vehicles. This is because the fire fighters can respond to a fire emergency from anywhere. Most MVC fatalities resulted from collisions. Disregard of the traffic rules is a major cause of such fatalities as firefighters forget/ignore wearing seat belts (USFA, 2009). In 2007, data by the OFPC Academy of on fire Science on fire fighter casualties revealed that 33 percent of all casualties was not determined, while 26 percent either suffered fractures, dislocation, sprain, swelling, strain, amputation or a crush. 13 percent were suffering from undisclosed pain and an equal percentage suffered abrasions, bruises, cuts, wounds or punctures. 4 percent had been affected by hazardous inhalants, while an equal number suffered burns. Two percent of the casualties had shortness of breath. Human error also plays a significant role in firefighters deaths. Sometimes, the firefighters may be too ignorant to safety precautions that they end up jeopardizing their own lives. In other cases, some one elseÃ¢â¬â¢s negligence or omissions may end up casing fire fighter deaths. The latter is best explained by the four young fire fighters who perished in the North central Washington fire in 2001. The four young men were part of a crew that had been pulled to a safe location after the fire became too enormous, but later sent out in an attempt to fight it. The water pumps that were to draw water from a nearby Chewuch River refused to start and the young men deployed their fire resistant tents on a poor ground just steps away from a safer ground (Maclean, J. N, 2007) Programs that would reduce death and injuries among firefighters The protective gear used by firefighters during fire fighting mission has been subject to criticism for a long time now. To begin with, there were gaping incompatibilities between components such as the hood, the SCBA and the gloves. In past years, the quality of the hood and the SCBA greatly improved. The weak link to the protective ensemble thus became the gloves. Many fire fighters claimed that the gloves hindered them from performing tasks such as manipulating switches, holding tools and grasping straps. The reason behind this was that the gloves could not fit perfectly, with the finger gloves being too long. Fire fighters also said that the materials used on the gloves decreased a personÃ¢â¬â¢s agility and thus could affect the response time (LaTourette, T, 2003). To rectify these weaknesses that may end up causing injuries to the firefighters, I would suggest that materials, fit and the agility of the firefighters be considered before the manufacturers can settle on the specific material to be used on the firefighting gear. Another concept that would have significant impact death and injury reduction among the firefighters is the safety culture concept (Pessemier, W. 2009). This would require empowering individuals and organization with risk handling skills that would not compromise their fire fighting goals. This means that the firefighters would be trained on fire fighting methods that poses minimal risks to their wellbeing. The fire departments in different states will also need to develop and implement effective systems to manage vital safety behaviors among the firefighters. In addition, the state needs to provide sufficient funds for the continued training of firefighters on critical safety measures. Members of the fire service departments must also be willing to challenge any assumption, value or practice that they think can jeopardize their safety (Pessemier, W. 2009). Another approach that can decrease the number of fatalities that happen to firefighters, is adopting the safe person model. This model, which was proposed by Mark Jones, a deputy fire officer in the UK, would also work in the United States. Jones described the safe person model as the combined responsibilities between individual firefighters and Organization responsibility. Individual responsibility requires the fire fighter to be a competent person, able to work with a team whereby the fire service takes the initiative of selecting people suited for the fire fighting exercises, providing them with the right information, instructs and trains them accordingly, in addition to providing them with protective equipment and right supervision( riskinstitute. org). Deaths that occurred due to motor vehicle collisions as firefighters respond to emergency calls can also be reduced by training the fire fighters on basic road safety tips. Such includes wearing safety belts at all times and driving carefully despite the need to get the emergency venue on time. According to USFA statistics, only 21 percent of the firefighters who died on MVC cases had worn their seat belts when the collision occurred (USFA, 2008). Checking on the fitness of volunteers should also be a priority for all fire services. Health screening before the volunteers can be given the green light to work should be mandatory. This should be made in order to evaluate each personÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history. Such should include their age, weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, weight, Family history and their physical tolerance levels (Sharkley, B. 2008). People aged above 45 years, who have physically inactive and those who have heart disease threat factors should be taken for extra checkups. Those with conditions such as high blood pressure should not be considered as the condition could end up in heart problems during exertion. Healthy adults should then be taken up as volunteers after the medical review. After taking up the firefighting volunteer roles, people aged 40 and more years should ensure that they continue engaging in cardiovascular activities. This is because regular exercises reduce the risk of developing heart diseases. Firefighters who have experienced situations that could have cost them lives should also be encouraged to speak up as other people can learn from their experiences. As noted by John B and Tippet Jr. (2005) in their report titled Ã¢â¬Å"Improve Leadership, report near missesÃ¢â¬ , encouraging firefighters who have experienced near-misses would serve as a learning venue for other firefighters. Such a program would be voluntary, confidential, secure and non-punitive for the firefighters who tell their personal accounts (John, B & Tippet,Jr. 2005). Laudable firefighter fatality reduction initiatives Under the auspices of the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF), firefighting organizations convened a meeting in 2004 and came up with 16 initiatives that if implemented would see to the reduction of the firefighters fatalities in the United States. They include: ensuring that fire fighting organizations had a responsible and accountable leadership, include tactical planning and strategic approaches at all levels when responding to emergencies, encourage firefighters under their organizations to employ safe practices only and develop a training and standardization mechanism which should be followed by all organizations. Additionally, the organization suggested that there should be a set standard for fitness standards, and that all initiatives towards decreasing the fatalities among firefighters should be documented. Conclusion Reducing the number of deaths and injuries among the firefighters is a challenge that would take efforts from both individual fire fighters and the firefighting organizations that they work for. It takes individual assessment to gauge the risks involved in a firefighting scenario and hence such requires good personal choices. On the other hand, it is the responsibility of the firefighting organizations to ensure that people working in the organization either as career firefighters or as volunteers meet the medical and physical requirements. It is also the organizations prerogative to ensure that firefighters are trained accordingly, have the right equipment and that they have the correct firefighting wear. Only then can people in the United States realize yearn to have fewer deaths among people who take up the hardest job and risk their lives when doing it. References John B and Tippet Jr. (2005). Improve leadership, report near misses: Learn from others about saving ourselves. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www. iafc. org/displayindustryarticle. cfm? articlenbr=27206 Jones, M. (2008). Concept, policy and Practice: The UK fire context. Retrieved January 28,2009 from http://www. riskinstitute. org/peri/images/file/S908-D7-Jones. pdf LaTourette, T. Et al: (2003). Protecting Emergency responders. New York: Rand publishers. Maclean, J. N. (2007). The Thirty Mile Fire: a Chronicle of Bravery and Betrayal: New York. Henry Holt Marshall, S. T. (2004). Suppressing Volunteer Firefighting. Publication: regulation. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www. allbusiness. com/human-resources/workplace-health-safety/317752-1. html Pessemer , W. (2009). Synopsis: Developing a safety Culture in the Fire Service. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www. everyonegoeshome. com/newsletter/2008/february/safetyculture. html Sharkey, B, J. (2008). Cardiovascular Risks of Wild land Firefighting. Retrieved January 28,2009 from http://www. firejock. com/articles/Cardiovascular%20Risks%20of%20Wildland%20Firefighting. htm US Fire Administration (USFA). (2008). Historical overview: firefighter fatalities. Retrieved January 28, 2009 from http://www. usfa. dhs. gov/fireservice/fatalities/statistics/index. shtm
Friday, August 16, 2019
Rishiv Chugh 9/24/12 4th period My Opinion On War War, itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the biggest things to happen to the world ever since then human evolution. So my opinion on war? Well to me, war is good on one side, and a terrible thing on the other side. So why do I think it is both good and bad at the same time? I might as well tell you and give some brief explanations why. So to start off, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you the proÃ¢â¬â¢s of war. For one thing, if there was no war, for all we know, there just might be more chaos in the world.With no control, other countries could nuke or bomb us without us knowing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m just saying that even though war may be a bad thing, it may be the one thing that can save our loved country from being overruled from other countries. Now we donÃ¢â¬â¢t want that to happen. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢ll move on to the cons of war. So the most obvious con of war is the loss of many loved ones. Everyone knows that it can be pretty difficult to lost someone that you really lo ve.Just think about all the poor people that lost their lives just trying to fight for our country. We should appreciate how much these brave people do to save our country. I know I do. I guess that all I am saying is that there are many different consequences and advantages to war. It goes from saving our beloved country to people losing their lives. So, next time you think about this, think about the people that lost their lives protecting the country.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
TOK essay Difference between scientific law, theory and hypothesis 551 words In the world were living in nowadays people, groups or even some nations each has a different way of thinking. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why opinions were created and people could have different prospectives and different ideas were developed all over the past centuries. That variation of ideas, prospective and ways of thinking had lead into the creation for methods for proving something as an idea an experiment a suggestion, and others.This essay would be discussing those ways and their differences. Firstly, the first thing that leads into an opinion or way of seeing something is setting up your hypothesis, hypothesis is an educated guess based upon observation for a certain matter. It is an explanation of a single event or something based on what is observed not deeply observed but just observed, and it also has not been proved yet. Most hypotheses can be supported or disproved by experiment or a deep observation.Some examples of hypothesis are, when an apple is put in the wind and sun it will rot, this is a simple example itÃ¢â¬â¢s based on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s observed as when an apple is put in the sun it would rot but no further scientific explanation is given. After a hypothesis is set based on really weak and shallow observations it must be tested for that opinion or idea to be true it must be tested and observed scientifically and not only once it must be tried and observed a number of times, that what develops a theory and obeys scientific laws, a scientific law is a statement of fact that explains a certain matter or different action or habits.It is generally accepted to be true and universal and can be proved and tested widely and sometimes they could be written as mathematical equations. Scientific laws must be simple, true and universal. Going back to a theory it is noted as more like a scientific law than a hypothesis. It is an explanation and prove for your hypothesis and sets of relate d observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times. A theory could hold on a definition as it is the way people could know this certain idea or issue is true by repeated xperiments whom tern a hypothesis into a theory or it just keeps it a hypothesis untested. Some examples of scientific laws are some physics and maths rules as Newton's laws of motion, law of gravity, the laws of thermodynamics and other physics laws whom are proved and tested thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they turn into a scientific law. Sometimes some laws can turn to theories as the law of gravity and gravitational forces, as it could go more general to be turned into a theory.The biggest difference between a law and a theory is that a theory is much more complex and dynamic. A law runs a single action, whereas a theory explains an entire group of related matters and phenomenas. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what differs an experimented hypothesis whether it turns into a theory or it is more specified so it tu rns to be a law, an example of a theory is automobiles Components of it can be changed or improved upon and more things invented in it, without changing the overall truth of the theory as a whole that it is an automobile.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Name: ____ Date: ____ School: ____ Facilitator: ____ 7. 3 Time Management Ã¢â¬â Work File Read the course resources in order to complete the following tasks. Read the following quotations. In your own words, explain what each quotation means. (10 points each) 1. Ã¢â¬Å"The amount of time available to you never changes. Ã¢â¬ ____ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to manage time is an investment in the future. Ã¢â¬ ____ 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Before you plan how you will use your time, you need to set your priorities. Ã¢â¬ ____ Using Course Resources answer the following questions. (10 points each) 4. Discuss the three ways time is wasted and how this can be avoided. a. ____ b. ____ c. ____ 5. What are the 4 keys to time management? a. ____ b. ____ c. ____ d. ____ 6. Choose one of the keys to time management and discuss how you can apply it to your daily schedule. ____ 7. Discuss whether or not writing a list and keeping a calendar would make you more efficient and productive. Why or why not? ____ Also read: Food Safety Work File Setting priorities: Fill in the chart below with at least three tasks in each column. First, set the priority of the task by assigning the highest priority task in each column with the number 1 and work down to the least important of the tasks being number 3. Write a time schedule along with the priority of the task. (10 points each) MUST DO|IMPORTANT TO DO|LIKE TO DO| Ex. 1. Finish health assignments-3:30 PM ____ |1. Turn in additional health assignments-4:30 PM ____? |1. Read additional information on health assignments! 5:00 PM____
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
WTO Dispute Settlement Procedures - Dissertation Example ed system, the facts are that is simply installed a complex legal system that is basically beyond the capabilities of developing nations to effectively use in terms of staffing and expertise. The realities of the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding as brought forth in this study indicated that the organisation needs to review its process to provide a pooled legal staff to represent the interests of its emerging nations. This examination will bring forth information and examples to provide an understanding of the WTO dispute handing processes as a means to reveal the issues. Ã Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 6 1.1 Background Summary 6 1.2 Problem Statement 7 1.3 Aims and Objectives 8 1.4 Significance of the Study 8 2.0 Literature Review 9 2.1 The World Trade Organisation Ã¢â¬â An Overview 9 2.1.1 Uruguay Round Additions 11 2.2 WTO Dispute Settlement Process 17 2.3 WTO Disputes Settlement and Developing Countries 22 2.4 WTO Dispute Settlement Study 36 2.5 Developing Country I nvestigations 42 3.0 Methodology 50 3.1 Framework 50 3.2 Research Strategy 51 3.3 Data Collection 52 3.4 Limitations 52 4.0 Findings and Analysis 53 4.1 Problem Statement 53 4.2 Aim 55 4.3 Objective 57 4.3.1 The various problems associated with the system while seeking resolutions and various reforms within the dispute resolution process to make it more suitable for the developing countries. 57 4.3.1 Examine the WTO dispute settlement process using examples of Gulf States in the Middle East as well as other developing countries in terms of equity and fairness. 59 5.0 Conclusion 64 References 67 Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â WTO Dispute Settlement System 19 Figure 2 - Value of world merchandise trade by region, 2000-2009 22 Figure 3 - Regional shares in world merchandise exports, 2000 and...As developed and brought forth under the Introduction segment, the World Trade Organisation grew from the experiences, understandings and lessons learned under GATT. The preceding s tatement represents a sweeping broad generalisation in that within the processes of the WTO the settling of disputes represents a real as well as important part of the system. It is this area that has given rise to comments and issues that this study seeks to explore. The summary background pointed out that the prior weaknesses in terms of dispute settlement, was contained in its procedures that were not effective and were politically charged that clouded the justice process. Bello and Holmer (1994, p. 1096) add to the above by telling us that any nation, especially the one against which the complaint had been filed, could effectively delay or even block the dispute resolution process. In understanding the context of this study, one needs to understand that the prior organisation had its flaws and areas that frustrated the developing nations. This situation is clearly a part of the history of the WTO and thus needs to be understood as a means to effectively examine the present Dispute Settlement Understanding. Factors that worked against GATT were that it did not operate as a formal institution, thus it lacked official procedures for making rules that were obligatory on all parties (Georgetown Law Library, 2009).
Monday, August 12, 2019
Describing the Warfront - Essay Example Describing the Warfront The passage comes from the work of Walter Benjamin, One-Way Street, and Other Writings. It considers the narratives of a soldier in the war front. The narrator shows awareness of the concerns shared by the troops while on the fighting front. This includes the concern on death and fatal enemy assaults. It pointed out that narrator lives in fear over his life due to the depth of the risks. The narrator shows the ease upon which loss of life is achieved in his station. This stimulates concern in his entire session. At some point, he finds himself dreaming about the losses he might suffer upon his death. This is captured by use of a reflection of his childhood friend, whom he has not shared information for a long time. Understanding the depth from where the author gets his inspiration allow for the meeting of the interests aspired by his work. Such an interest is achieved through reflection of tone, wording and language used in the work. The caption allows for the reflection of the lives of the victims through their own words and flow of thoughts. A tone of anguish, fear and pain remain well relished in the entire caption. The author is portrays the entire concerns that remain attributed to the respective reflection through the aid of these virtues. This narrative holds the themes embraced by Walter Benjamin in his work. The narration is on a sad theme that involves reflection on fear and death in a single piece. The whole novel, One-Way Street, and Other Writings, has similar themes of sadness.